AMA Citation Format. How to Cite Your Medical Papers
In the event that you belong to the medical or scientific community, you may be knowledgeable about the AMA format and the AMA citation. The AMA tips have made the lives of students worldwide difficult as the guideline is 1032 pages! The guideline discusses how to write in AMA format. In the event that you don’t have sufficient time for reading it, but still want to master it, this article from EssayPro — paper writing service online — will make suggestions through the fundamental paper format and citation rules in line with the American Medical Association (AMA) Style. For the extra benefit, we have added a format example, a template for print, and electronic sources. But let’s start with the meaning.
What Is AMA Format?
AMA format is just a guideline for arranging and organizing your academic papers. It helps students studying medical care, medicine, and nursing presenting their a few ideas with a clear structure for their reading audiences. The American Medical Association first published the AMA Style Guide in 1962, combined with AMA Citation Guide, and so they have not introduced many changes since that year. The target was to create a simple and standard structure for students to present their essays and research papers with evidence from credible sources to guide their arguments.
It is critical to master the AMA reference format for many reasons:
- To logically structure your papers
- To make it easier to follow your texts
- To check out a guideline for your arguments and thesis statement(s)
- To credit the names of talented contributors
- To avoid issues with plagiarism
Finally, using AMA format is nearly always a requirement for medical research papers. It is impossible to earn full credits without formatting your work. Without citing sources, a student risks having problems with plagiarism, also it often results in an ‘F’. AMA style has numerous variations for various educational institutions and publications. To supply a complete answer to the question of “What is AMA format? ”, we have to analyze the parts of this writing style.
Basic Formatting of AMA Papers
We've mentioned that AMA directions have not changed dramatically since 1962. Therefore , what are its basic principles? Whenever a writer must add an AMA style citation, they have to come up with a number in superscript and then have to cite the foundation in full in the “Reference List” with that corresponding number.
General Rules of AMA Formatting
Ensuring the numbers are in chronological order is very important. Memorize these basic rules of formatting:
- Double space your text
- Use 1" margins
- The Font Size should be 12 and can be any font type. You should use two typefaces (a serif for human body text and a sans serif for titles and subheads) with appropriate usage of styles, such as for example bold and italics for a scholarly publication. (5. 22. 4)
- Use 1/2" indents
- You need to add page numbers—beginning with the title page. Pages should be numbered consecutively. Page numbers are often placed in top of the right corner.
- References should be listed and numbered in the order they certainly were cited in your paper.
Basic Rules for AMA Citation
- The superscript numbers will make it possible to find the complete reference on your AMA “Reference List” page.
- Each citation number should match the reference number.
- Apply Arabic superscript numerals.
- The entire references must begin with their corresponding numbers.
- Just how a reference is written depends on the sort of source students has to cite; knowing how to cite an internet site does not mean a student automatically knows how exactly to cite a book.
- A bibliographical entry should have the writer’s last name and the first & middle initial without punctuation.
- Apply a comma to add multiple writer. Example: 3. Lawrence T, Barman PJ. Cardiac denervation in diabetes. BMJ. 1973; 4: 584-586.
- Apply sentence case for titles—with no exceptions (capitalize the initial word of the title—no need to do it with all of those other words. Example: GONE with the wind).
- Abbreviate and italicize titles of materials in line with the National Library of Medicine database.
- Split up every reference with periods into bibliographic categories.
- Invert the names of the writers. Use initials for the first and middle names without putting periods between initials. It must be like this: AuthorLastname, FirstInitialMiddleInitial.
- Add issue numbers in parentheses after volume numbers (for journals).
Rules in Regard to Punctuation Marks
- Work with a comma in cases where the items are sub-elements of a bibliographic component or perhaps a set of interconnected components like writers’ names.
- Make use of a semicolon if the elements in the category vary from the other person (the release date & title of the source) / if numerous occurrences of interconnected components can be obtained within a group + ahead of the volume identification information.
- Work with a colon prior to the publisher’s name, between the title and the subtitle, and after a connective phrase (e. g., “In, ” “Presented at”).
To create it clear, we would like to talk about a universal AMA citation example with you.
AMA citation example: The Cannabis herb has been used in medicine for ages. Historical evidence proves its medical use dated back to 2737BCE¹.
References in the AMA Bibliography
AMA paper format means using proper references within the written text and Reference List, but additionally using the proper stylistic matters. This includes specific things like using headings and capitalizing them accordingly, or using line spacing, margins, text styles (such as using "one" or "1", using AM, a. m., or perhaps a. M. ), placement of page numbers, font, spacing for graphs, decoration for tables, etc .
AMA style requires the use of standard National Library of Medicine [NLM] abbreviations for all journal titles when available.
Below are a few AMA citation general formatting guidelines:
- Corresponding superscript number.
- Article title.
- Abbreviated Journal Title.
- Date; volume(issue): pages.
- Online Journal Articles.
Example: 1 ) Kumar RN, Chambers W, Pertwee RG. Pharmacological Actions and Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. Anesthesia. 2001 Dec 7; 56(2): 1059-1068.
2. O'Barry M, Sakras S. Determining the implications of obesity in adults and children. J Adult Health. 2010 Sep 14; 45(10): 583-596.
Here are other important rules:
- Acronyms, abbreviations, and initialisms: It's discouraged to make use of acronyms, abbreviations, and initialisms, except if they have been well-known. It might include accepted units of measurement some well-recognized terms. If you do use an acronym, abbreviation, or initialism, spell it out with its first use, even when it is well-known. Do not place periods involving the letters of an acronym, abbreviation, or initialism. Stated names must always appear as full names in the writing of a manuscript. If included in references, use the two-letter abbreviation (first name initial and middle name initial).
- Numbers: Numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on ) ought to be used in all writing, except when: the quantity begins the sentence or title. To point a time of day, use AM or PM in small letters (6 pm). Conventional 12-hour clock time is preferred. But 24 hour or military time convention can also be used if you want to show precise timing.
- Dates: When you really need to provide a date in the text, it's preferable to use numerals for the day and year, and write out the month – e. g. October 2, 2020. If you use dates in a dining table, you may use numerals for the month (e. g. 4/2/2010).
- Measurements: To create measurements, it’s better to use SI standard measurements (The International System of Units). Numbers are always written in plain text. There's a space following the number and before the unit, and never an interval after the unit (unless it ends a sentence). Usually do not include commas in longer numbers (e. g. 1600 km, maybe not 1, 600 km).
AMA title page
The title page should include the following:
- The Title [Capitalize the first letter of each major word in titles and subtitles]
- Page Number in the top right corner
- First Name and Last Name
- Student Number
- Course Title
In-Text Citation: Format and Rules
In-text citations would be the notes that you make within the writing of your paper when you use a borrowed bit of information and/or idea and may be identified using superscript numbers. If you utilize a direct quote from still another work, you ought to enclose the quote within quotation marks. If the direct quote is longer than four lines, the quote must be set off and indented in a distinct block, should be presented in paid off type, and may appear without quotation marks. The superscript numbers that identify your use of a borrowed bit of information and/or idea should appear outside (or to the right) of commas, periods, and quotation marks, and should appear inside (or to the left) of colons and semicolons.
In the event that you borrow items of information and/or ideas from more than one source in a single passage or sentence, be sure to identify each of the sources with an original superscript number. Multiple superscript numbers must be separated by commas and may not have spaces between them. Pieces of information and/or a few ideas borrowed from personal communications – including interviews, emails and letters – must be cited parenthetically within the writing of your paper. You should range from the person’s name, as well as the type and the date of the communication, in the citation.
Personal communications really should not be assigned a superscript number and should perhaps not be within the list of references at the end of one's paper. Allow me to share two samples of in-text citations using the AMA format citation style:
Example: - Indirect quotation (citation after having a comma, period): The smoking is considered to deteriorate the breathing functions ⁸. British Columbia Institute of Technology
2. Direct quotation (citation after quotation mark): The engineer announced that “the house was built on solid ground. ” ⁸
AMA Reference List
When utilizing AMA format, you need to produce a comprehensive listing of references at the conclusion of your paper that offers factual statements about your chosen sources. The listing of references should present step-by-step information about the sources that you consulted in pursuit, borrowed items of information, and/or ideas from other sources you utilized in your paper. The in-text citations appear throughout the text, while the full entry to each of those references are included on a separate page of the essay.
The AMA Reference List format allows readers to find the way to obtain the information on the topic covered and allows them to be on researching the issue in-depth. A writer should link both in-text citation, and its corresponding reference, by way of a superscript number. The superscript number is predetermined by its order of appearance within the essay (beginning with ¹, ², and so on )
- The references can be listed numerically in the order which they appeared within the text of one's paper.
- The sort, the order, and the format of the information that you will be to include in a Reference List will vary with regards to the type of source that you borrowed the piece(s) of information and/or idea(s) from.
- Whatever the type of source that you are referencing, you should never insert a comma between the last name and the first initials of an author, editor, or director.
- In the event that you borrow an item of information and/or idea from the specific page or array of pages in just a printed work or a paginated web resource, you should identify said page(s) at the end of the corresponding reference.
- Whenever you identify a typical page number, or numbers, in a entry in your listing of references, make sure you insert the numbers entirely (for example use 111–112, not 111–2).
All references to digital journals should include the next elements:
- Title of article and subtitle (as applicable)
- Abbreviated and italicized name of the journal
- Volume number
- Issue number
- Part or supplement number, when pertinent
- Inclusive page numbers—Do not omit digits from inclusive page numbers. The entire year of the publication is followed by a semicolon; the quantity number and the issue number (in parentheses) are accompanied by a colon; the initial page number is followed by a hyphen, and the final page number is followed by an interval.
Example: 1 ) Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. The Lancet. 2008; 372(9648): 1502-1517.
2. Beran RG, Braley TJ, Segal BM, Chervin RD. Sleep-disordered sucking in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2013; 80(14): 1354-1355.
3. Pollart SM, Calleigh AS. Changing conversations, changing culture: A medical education journal club. Med Educ. 2011; 45(11): 1134.
Example: Love and reconciliation: examining human emotions. Website. https://www.ama-assn.org/. Published 1997. Accessed April 30, 2004.
Example: Bros R. The promise of precision prescriptions. Washington Post. June 24, 2000: A1. https://www.washingtonpost.com. Accessed October 10, 2001.
Online Journal Article:
Example: Jahden JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158(2): 106‐107. https://www.ama-assn.org/. Accessed June 1, 2004.
Online Government/Organization Reports
Example: Kahdyen L, Gruber J. Does public insurance improve the efficiency of health care bills? Medicaid expansions and son or daughter hospitalizations. https://www.nber.org/papers/w755. Published February 2000. Accessed February 26, 2004.
Online Conference Proceedings/Presentations
Example: Loshabel F. Talk presented at: National Human Research Protections Advisory Committee; April 9, 2001; Bethesda, MD. https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/. Accessed February 26, 2004
All references to print books should include the next elements:
- Authors’ surnames and first and middle initials
- Chapter title (if there)
- Surname and first and middle initials of the book’s author(s) or editor(s) (or translators if any)
- Title of book, and subtitle (if any)
- Volume number and volume title (when there's more than one volume)
- Edition number (do not indicate the first edition)
- Place of publication
- Country names must certanly be spelt out when they appear alone.
- Name of publisher
- Year of copyright
- Page numbers (when specific pages are cited)
Examples: - Luckerston A, Luckerston VB, Nunn LS. Destiny. Maryland, MN: Twenty-First Century Books; 2020. 2. Charston SK, Adams JN. Childhood Cancer: A Nursing Overview. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 1987.
Here are AMA citation examples how to cite books:
Book with One Author:
Example: Sacks O. Uncle Tungsten. Ny, NY: Alfred A Knopf; 2001.
Book with Two to Six Authors: Separate the authors’ names using a comma.
Example: Beckon O, Laurent B. Miracles working. Nyc, NY: Alfred A Knopf; 2009.
Book with Seven or More Authors: List the first three authors, after which put “et al. ”
Example: Beckon O, Laurent B, Seichen P et al. Miracles working. Nyc, NY: Alfred A Knopf; 2009.
Book with an Editor:
Example: Galanter M, ed. Services Research in the Era of Managed Care. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum; 2001.
Book by an Organization:
Example: World Health Organization. Injury: A respected Cause of the Global Burden of Illness, 2000. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
Book of Second or Later Edition
Example: Adkinson N, Yunginger J, Busse W, Bochner B, Holgate S, Middleton E, eds. Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2003.
Example: Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockey P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004: 585‐606.
Print Journal Article
Example: Colbert S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004; 61(7): 1025‐1029.