APA (American Psychological Association) style is used to cite sources in the field of social sciences. It may be used for research papers in the subjects of social anthropology, sociology, social psychology, political science, and economics.

In this guide, we will offer you specific guidelines on how to organize and correctly cite various kinds of sources in APA format — alongside citation examples. This article is really a good aid for anyone who wishes to call home up to high academic standards, avoid plagiarism, and cite their sources in accordance with the most recent APA style rules.

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The next guide is dependant on the most recent 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological association.

APA Referencing Basics: Reference List

A reference list is a listing of all the sources one has utilized in their essay. Everything in other citation styles, including the bibliography or works cited page, are merely called a reference list in the APA format. In order to make it easier for a reader to navigate your essay and look for cited sources, a number of rules to follow along with to organize it:

  • First, the reference page is obviously the last page in your essay. At the top of the page, place the word “References”. Do not allow it to be bold or underline it. All the text on this page should have the exact same spacing while the rest of one's essay.
  • In the reference list, the author's last name goes first and the first name.
  • Each source on the reference page must start on a brand new line. If the source uses up more than one line, all the lines following the first one must certanly be indented one-half inch from the left.
  • If there are multiple works by the exact same author, they must be listed in chronological order, from earliest to latest.
  • On the reference page, the sources must certanly be alphabetized in line with the last names of the authors (or the first author, if you will find multiple authors for one source).
  • Always write out every title entirely, and ensure that you stick to the punctuation and capitalizations employed by the author.
  • Titles of longer sources, like books and journals, must be italicized.
You might also be interested in discovering Academic Writing Style Guide: How exactly to Format an APA Paper

APA Referencing Basics: In-Text Citation

  • Two authors. To do the in-text citation, both authors must be named in parentheses following the thought is completed. Instead of using “and”, use an ampersand to combine the 2 last names. Then, put a coma and include the season of publication.
Example: (Smith & Jones, 2002)

If you use a signal phrase, you should utilize “and”, and only put the year of publication in parentheses:

Example: Based on Smith and Jones (2002), the circumstances of…
  • Three, four or five authors. Every one of the authors must be listed no matter whether you choose to do an in-text citation or signal phrase while citing your quote or information. List them all except the last one—using commas. The last one should have a comma AND ampersand in front of it, followed by the season:
Example: (Brooks, Jones, Smith, & Orozco, 2009)

In just about any follow-up citations throughout the text, instead of listing all of the authors, you should simply include the first name followed closely by “et al. ” and the year:

Example: (Brooks et al., 2009)
  • Six or more authors. In this instance, you should not list all of the authors in the in-text citation. In parentheses, or in a signal phrase, put the last name of the very first author and “et al. ”, combined with year. Here is the correct method to do an in-text citation for a publication with multiple authors:
Examples: Brooks et al. (2009) suggested…
(Brooks et al., 2009)
  • No authors. If it appears that a number of your sources do not have an author, the in-text citation should be done using the name of the publication. In parentheses, you ought to include the two first words from the name of the publication in quotation marks, followed closely by the year. The exact same goes for an indication phrase in-text citation, but without the utilization of parentheses:
Example: The investigation was conducted in an appropriate environment (“Deduction Methods”, 1996)
  • Citing authors with multiple works from exactly the same year. In the rare case you're citing multiple works by exactly the same author, that also have exactly the same publication date, you should use lower-case letters following the year (a, b, c, etc . )—depending on the order the sources are placed in the reference list:
Examples: Findings of this research were outstanding (Brooks, 1972a)…
The finding of Brooks’ research (1972a)…
  • Citing multiple works in one parentheses. If your statement you created was composed out of a number of different sources, you will need to include them all in the parentheses of one's in-text citation. You should list them alphabetically, the same way they are rendered in the reference list:
Example: (Brooks, 1995; Gandhi, 2004)
  • Citing a group or organization. If the author of a publication is not an individual, but rather a business or a group, you should are the full name of the organization, combined with the year of publication, in the parentheses of your in-text citation:
Examples: The laws accompanied by Internal Revenue Service (2002)…
The laws accompanied by this organization (IRS, 2002)…
  • Citing a secondary source. So that you can cite a source that you are finding within still another source, you ought to name your source in the signal phrase. Then, mention the secondary source in parentheses, followed by the phrase “as cited”, the season of publication, and the page number:
Example: Brooks suggested that…(as cited in Smith, 2002, p. 459)

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How to Cite Different Source Types

In this section you will discover just how to cite different printed and digital sources.

How to Cite a Book in APA Format

  • Citing a book in print. Citing a book follows this specific format:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letters also for subtitles. Location: Publisher.

First, put the last name of mcdougal, followed by a comma, then initial(s). In parentheses, put the year of publication. Next, the title of the book. Italicize the title — even though the only capitalized letters would be the first letters of the title and subtitle. Then, you should range from the location of where the book was published, combined with publisher, separated by a semicolon:

Citation example: Smith, A. J. (2009). Economic in modern life: Guide to success. New York City; Manhattan press.
  • Citing an e-book from an e-reader. If your source is a book from an e-reader just like a Kindle, the next information must be included: the writer, date of publication in parentheses, title, e-book version, and the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number or place where you downloaded the book. This information can be used instead of the information regarding the publisher.
Citation example: Salinger, J. J. (1897). Glass Family [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com
  • Citing a book found in a database. If the book you are using in your essay arises from a school library database or and online database, you should cite it in the following format: Last name of mcdougal, initial(s), italicized name of the publication, and “retrieved from”, followed closely by a link to the website. If the book you are using has to be purchased, it is suggested to place “available from”, rather than “retrieved from”.
Citation example: De Puff, E. W. (n.d.). Indian Lifestyle: Traditions and myths. Retrieved from https://digital.library.sdsu.edu/indians.html

How to Cite a Journal Article in APA Format

  • Citing a journal article in print. For a printed article to be cited, the following format should be used: author with initial(s), date of publication in parentheses, title, title of journal (italicized), volume number (italicized), issue number, and page range:
Citation example: Scraton, J. (1993). The eclipse of understanding. The New Yorker Style, 21(4), 5-13.
  • Citing a journal article found online. In line with the APA format guide, if the journal article was found online, these format must be followed: author with initial(s), date of publication in parentheses, title, title of journal (italicized), volume number (italicized), issue number, page range, and DOI.

A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is just a tool utilized in the APA format, in place of a URL. URLs often change; for that reason the reader is not always able to retrieve a certain on the web source. DOIs, on the other hand, have a long-lasting link that's unique to a specific article. If a DOI is unavailable, the use of a URL is permitted.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number, if available), page range. doi: 0000000/000000000000 or https://doi.org/10.0000/0000

Citation example: Brownie, D. (2007). French economics: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

How to Reference a Newspaper in APA Format

  • Citing a newspaper article in print. Based on the APA format guide, articles retrieved from the newspaper on the net should be cited as follows: author, year and month of publication, the name of the article, the name of the newspaper (italicized), and pages:
Citation example: Curtis, S. (2005, October 22). Fields grown to thrive. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.
  • Citing a newspaper article found online is identical to a printed version, even though the home address should be added. APA style format instructions suggest utilizing the homepage rather than the URL it self:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from https://www.homeaddress.com/

Example: Galveston, T. (2008, August 6). Psychology newsletter. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/

How to Reference a Magazine in APA Format

  • Citing a magazine article in print. A magazine article in print is needed to have these structure (according to the APA format guide): author, year and month of publication in parentheses, the name of the article, the name of the magazine (italicized), issue number (italicized), and page range:
Citation example: Henry, W. A., (1990, April). Making the grade in the present schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
  • Citing a magazine article found online. For a magazine article obtained online, you need to have these components, prior to the APA format guide: author, year and month of publication in parentheses, the name of the content, the name of the magazine (italicized), issue number (italicized) and page range, followed by the DOI:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, issue number, page range. doi: 0000000/000000000000 or https://doi.org/10.0000/0000

Citation example: Henry, W. A., (1990, April). Making the grade in the present schools. Time, 135, 28-31. doi: 10.1108/03090560710821161

How to Cite a Movie/Film in APA Format

  • Citing a film / Citing a movie. In case a film is among the sources of your essay, it could be challenging to cite. To carry out so relative to the APA format guide, you need to place the following info on the reference page: producer’s name—followed by “producer” in parentheses, director’s name—followed by “director” in parentheses, date of publication in parentheses, title (italicized)-followed by “motion picture” in brackets, country of origin, and finally, studio.

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Citation example: Carroll, G., Giler, D., & Hill, W. (Producers), & Scott, R. (Director). (1979). Alien [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.
  • Citing a film from YouTube. If you learn a YouTube video that looks like a credible academic source, don't hesitate to incorporate it. In line with the APA format guide, you ought to start off with the name of the one who published the video, followed closely by their nickname or username is brackets, date of publication in parentheses, italicized name of the video and the kind of media in brackets, and the URL for it.

Last Name, F.M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video File]. Retrieved from URL

Citation example: Apolon, M. [marsolon]. (2011, October 9). The tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www..com/watch?v=6nyGC848/

How to Cite a TV/Radio Broadcast in APA Format

  • Citing an episode from TV or a radio show. Citing an episode from a TELEVISION or radio show must certanly be done in the following format: writer’s last name and initial(s), followed closely by (Writer); director’s last name and initial(s), followed by (Director); the year of publication in parentheses; the name of the episode; type of series; producer’s name, followed by (Producer); italicized title; city and state of origin; and studio or distributor’s name:

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.

Citation example: Dick, L. (Writer), & Yaitanes, G. (Director). (2009). Simple explanation [Television series episode]. In P. Attanasio (Executive producer), House, M.D.. Los Angeles, CA: Fox Broadcasting..

How to Cite a Website in APA Format

  • Citing a website article with an author. If you discover an article on line that is not from the newspaper, magazine, or almost any periodical, the ultimate way to cite it really is as follows (according to the APA format guide): author, date of publication in parentheses, title, format description, and “retrieved from” with the URL:

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Citation example: Eco, U. (2015). How to write a thesis [PDF file]. (Farina C. M. & Farina F., Trans. ) Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/How_to_write_a_thesis/.../Umberto+Eco-How+to+Write/
  • Citing a website article without an author. If the article won't have an author, cite it with the name of the page, date in parentheses or “n. d” for “no date”, and “retrieved from” with the URL:
Citation example: Spotlight Resources. (n. d. ). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/about/information/spotlight_resources.html/

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