The Chicago format is one of the most favored style manuals. It contains comprehensive instructions for formatting, referencing, and citing works that ought to be published. In this article, the expert team from EssayPro will share exhaustive info on the Chicago Manual of Style with a detailed guide on how to format a Chicago style paper. Keep reading to master how to write in Chicago/Turabian style effortlessly.

What is Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is a compilation of formatting, referencing, and citing rules applied to works written in American English (mostly) and published in historical or social sciences journals. The manual was made by the University of Chicago Press and the initial version premiered in 1906. Currently, during this writing, it is on its 17th edition.

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The rules for this type of formatting were shaped for professionals in social sciences who publish their articles in journals, magazines, and so forth An alternative to Chicago movement that is geared more for students and researchers is Turabian format. It consists of slightly different requirements for citing and formatting academic papers. This style also relates to papers written in social sciences—in particular: History, Business, Fine Art, and so forth

As opposed to many other formats, the Chicago Manual of Style shows that authors use two different systems for citing sources: the Notes-Bibliography System and the Author-Date System.

The Notes-Bibliography method requires placing numbered footnotes in the text with shortened versions of citations located in the bottom of the page. The entire citations are then gathered on another Bibliography page at the end of the document. This method of documenting sources is the most preferred one for documents in the humanities disciplines.

The second method, the Author-Date System, requires writers to add parenthetical citations in the written text after a quotation or any borrowed information. Citations in parentheses will include the last name of the original source’s author, the entire year when it had been published, and the page where the info you’ve used can be found in the foundation. Every citation needs to have another entry on a References page by the end of the paper. Unlike the Notes-Bibliography method, the Author-Date System is put on papers in sciences and social sciences.

Because it was said, the Chicago format is closely interlinked with still another style manual called Turabian. It is a referencing and citing system shaped on the basis of the Chicago style. This format was named as a result of its author — Kate Turabian, from the University of Chicago. This format is most often employed for writing papers in social sciences, for instance , Economics.

How Are Chicago and Turabian Styles Different?

In summary, Kate Turabian adapted the Chicago style for students and researchers. Thus, the key difference is that the Turabian style is simpler, shorter, and contains fewer requirements. Particularly, it doesn’t contain any instructions on publishing since, unlike the Chicago style which is made for professionals who publish their works, the Turabian style was created to steer students while writing papers and essays. Still, all the guidelines applicable to the Chicago paper format is the same for a Turabian style paper, so , with the aid of this article, you are able to write in both styles.

Which are the main components of a Chicago format paper? Both the Chicago and Turabian styles imply the author should divide his document in to three parts: Title Page (cover page), Main Human body, and Bibliography.

General Rules

Listed here is a list of general guidelines applicable to every Chicago style essay:

  • Font: Clear and easy to read, the most well-liked fonts are Times New Roman or Courier
  • Font Size: Broadly speaking not less than 10pt, but preferably 12pt
  • Space: Doubled every-where except within block quotes, table titles, notes, figure captions, and bibliography or References entries
  • Spaces Between Paragraphs: None
  • Margins: Not less than 1”
  • Chicago Style Page Numbers: Placed at the top right corner of every page excluding the title page, therefore the first page of the primary body should really be numbered at 1
  • Footnotes: Should be assigned on quoted or paraphrased passages if you are using the Notes-Bibliography method.

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Chicago Style Cover Page

The title page, or cover page, may be the main introduction to your projects, and spacing is its crucial aspect. You should ask your teacher for specific details on how exactly to structure your title page, but the overall guidelines on how best to structure a Chicago cover page are:

  • The title of the paper or article should be placed one third below the top of the page and centered.
  • The document’s title should be followed closely by the author’s name, class information, and the date (all placed several lines below the title).
  • All double-spaced.
  • If you want to include a subtitle as well, end the title line with a colon and type the subtitle on the next line.

Note: While all documents written in the Chicago style needs to have a title page, this rule may well not always affect papers written in Turabian style. Academic papers that follow this style guide may either include a title page or provide the document’s title on the first page, followed by the key body. Nevertheless , if your professor demands including a cover page, the rules stated earlier apply aswell.

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Chicago Style in Text Citation

Main body

The primary body of the Chicago style paper is the biggest part of the paper and it’s where authors share their main some ideas and home elevators a specific topic. The Chicago Manual of Style suggests a list of general requirements applicable to the primary body of the text:

  • Titles of sources placed within the paper, notes, and bibliography should follow headline-style capitalization.
  • Titles placed within the paper, notes, and bibliography could be italicized or taken in quotation marks in line with the type of work they make reference to:
  • Titles of larger works, including books and periodicals – have to be italicized.
  • Titles of shorter works, including chapters and articles – should be put in quotation marks.
  • Titles of most poems – have to be put in double quotation marks.
  • Titles of longer poems – should be italicized.
  • Titles of plays – should be italicized.
  • In any other case – be sure to have a minimalist method of capitalization. Usually do not overuse italics or quotation marks for no reason. Also, use lowercase if you find no dependence on uppercase.
  • When quoting something, be sure to create block quotes when necessary. For prose, it is recommended to block a quote if it is longer than five lines. Read more information about block quotes further on in this essay.

Chicago Style Heading

The Chicago Manual of Style does not provide authors with any strict rules about the format of headings and subheadings in the document. However, it does suggest a few recommendations:

  • Place all subheadings on a new line.
  • Follow a headline-capitalization style.
  • Continue consistency and parallel structure in all headings and subheadings.
  • Authors may use different font sizes to distinguish subheadings.
  • It is suggested not to end subheadings with periods.
  • There ought to be a maximum of three levels of hierarchy.
  • All levels should be consistent and clear.
  • To tell apart levels of hierarchy, authors could use different fonts, bold or italics, or different placements on the page (preferably either flush left or centered).

Unlike the Chicago Manual of Style, Turabian provides more recommendations for formatting different degrees of headings and subheadings. Third , system isn't mandatory, but recommended. In the dining table below, you'll find a comprehensive set of formatting tips for each of the three heading levels:

Level of Hierarchy

Suggested Format

1

Headline-style capitalization, bold or italic, centered

2

Headline-style capitalization, regular, centered

3

Headline-style capitalization, bold or italic, flush left

Here are a few examples of different level headings:

Level 1 Postmodern Literature
Level 2 The Key Directions and Techniques
Level 3 Historiographic Metafiction

Chicago Style in-Text Citation

How you will be formatting each Chicago style citation will depend on the machine you are following. As had been mentioned, for the Notes-Bibliography System, you need to put numbered footnotes. We shall cover that later inside our article.

When it comes to Author-Date System citations, they ought to follow these rules:

  • The last name of mcdougal, date of publication, and the page number should all go in parentheses.
  • No punctuation marks are allowed between the author’s last name and the publication date.
  • No abbreviations are allowed.
  • Split up the date of publication and the page number with a comma.
  • If you find no author, you should use a shortened title of the foundation in your in-text citation.
  • If citing the exact same pages of the source numerously, cite the origin in full following the last reference.

Note: If you use a Notes-Bibliography method, then the chicago in-text citation is put in parentheses only when it follows direct quotes. If you should be paraphrasing information, you have to use footnotes as an alternative.

A good example of an in-text Chicago Manual of Style citation: “That was the way the General learned what the complete city already knew: not just one but a few assassination plots against him were brewing, and his last supporters were inside your home to try to thwart them. ” (García Márquez 1990, 18)

Block Quotes Chicago

Block quotations, also referred to as extracts, are utilized for longer quotes – five or maybe more lines (or over 100 words) for prose, and two or more lines for poetry. These quotes have to be formatted differently.

Listed below are the main rules for blocking Chicago style quotes:

  • Always begin block quotes on a new line.
  • Do not put such passages in quotation marks.
  • Indent block quotes with the term processor’s indentation tool.
Prose example of Chicago style block quote with the Author-Date System: In his paradise in Lima he had spent a joyous night with a young girl who was covered with fine, straight down over every millimeter of her Bedouin skin. At dawn, while that he was shaving, he viewed her lying naked in the bed, adrift in the peaceful sleep of a satisfied woman, and he cannot resist the temptation of possessing her forever with a sacramental act. That he covered her from check out foot with shaving lather, and with a pleasure like this of love he shaved her clean with his razor, sometimes using his right hand and sometimes his left as he shaved every part of her human body, even the eyebrows that grew together, and left her doubly naked inside her magnificent newborn's human body. She asked, her soul in shreds, if that he really loved her, and he answered with exactly the same ritual phrase he had strewn without pity in so many hearts throughout his life: "More than other people in this world. (García Márquez 1990, 270)
Poetry example of Chicago style block quote with the Author-Date System: All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first, the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurse's arms. (Shakespeare 1623, 34)
Prose example of Chicago style block quote Notes-Bibliography System: In his paradise in Lima he had spent a joyous night with a young girl who was covered with fine, straight down over every millimeter of her Bedouin skin. At dawn, while that he was shaving, he viewed her lying naked in the bed, adrift in the peaceful sleep of a satisfied woman, and he cannot resist the temptation of possessing her forever with a sacramental act. That he covered her from check out foot with shaving lather, and with a pleasure like this of love he shaved her clean with his razor, sometimes using his right hand and sometimes his left as he shaved every part of her human body, even the eyebrows that grew together, and left her doubly naked inside her magnificent newborn's human body. She asked, her soul in shreds, if that he really loved her, and he answered with exactly the same ritual phrase he had strewn without pity in so many hearts throughout his life: "More than other people in this world. ¹
_________________
¹. Gabriel García Márquez, “The General in His Labyrinth”. Alfred A. Knopf, 1990.
Poetry example of Chicago style block quote Notes-Bibliography System: All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first, the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurse's arms. ²
_________________
² William Shakespeare, “First Folio”. Edward Blount and William and Isaac Jaggard, 1623.

Numbers and Acronyms

In Chicago Style Format, it's better to use words in place of numerals for numbers below 100. As a result, you would need certainly to write “seventy-five, ” perhaps not “75. ” But in the event that you refer to a certain measurement (e. g. “15 pounds”), you'd still need certainly to use a numeral.

For acronyms, explain acronyms the very first time you make reference to them and specify what they are a symbol of.

Example: The HPI (House Price Index) shows…

In the future, you should use the acronym alone. Numerals, nor acronyms, really should not be written in the beginning of a sentence. You will have to either rewrite the sentence so that the numeral or acronym appears elsewhere, or create the full phrase or number: Instead of "200 people answered the question" or "Two hundred people answered the question" use "We received 200 responses.

Chicago Style Bibliography: Footnotes and Endnotes

In the event that you follow the Notes-Bibliography method, both Chicago and Turabian writing styles imply using footnotes or endnotes if you quote an external source directly or include paraphrased information. While using the Author-Date style, on the contrary, you'll need to include parentheses in text to cite your sources.

Chicago Style Footnotes

Footnotes are notes placed at the end of each page. Each Chicago style footnote is numbered and its number should match the number placed after a quote, passage, or paraphrased bit of information. Chicago style footnotes can perform some of the following roles:

  • Provide shortened citations to quotes and paraphrased materials.
  • Give additional explanations or notes on some terms, phrases, etc .
  • Provide background information when necessary.
  • Give links to outside sources.
  • Mention copyright permissions, etc.

Listed here is a standard Chicago footnote format to follow:

  • Place footnotes at the bottom of the page.
  • Incorporate a footnote on a single page where the information you're citing is given.
  • Number each note with the exact same number placed after a quote or piece you are citing.
  • When coming up with the first note for a specific source, include all of the following information: name of the writer, source title, and publication details.
  • Whenever you cite that same source again, the note only requires the surname of the author, a shortened kind of the title (if the size of the title is significantly more than 4 words), and page numbers.
  • In the event that you cite the exact same source and page significantly more than two times, make use of the word “Ibid. ” meaning “from the exact same place. ” If they are from different pages, use the word “Ibid. ”, but also abide by it with a typical page number.
Chicago footnotes example: Footnotes are used in the Chicago/Turabian style paper. ¹ There are numerous reasons why footnotes really are a handy tool: perhaps the main one could be the quick and easy access to information. ² To no surprise, students likewise prefer footnotes to long and confusing bibliography pages, while they carry additional information; a footnote presents no cons. ³
_________________
¹ Jan Hudson, “Chicago/Turabian: Why you ought to Use It”. New York Times publication, 2003. Although they have been used in the Chicago/Turabian style, they are often utilized in other citation styles.
² Hudson, “Why You Should Use” 12-33. Easy and quick access may be granted likewise by a bibliography page at the conclusion of the essay, nevertheless , statistics show that not many students take care to access it while many do read the footnotes at the end of the page.
³ Ibid. It is a harsh statement, perhaps, as footnotes do have just one can not addressed in this paper: they sometimes cause the reader to get rid of their train of thought.

Chicago Style Endnotes

Chicago endnotes are usually similar to footnotes and serve the same purposes. The only huge difference is that while footnotes are placed in the bottom of a full page, endnotes are collected by the end of a chapter, document, or article.

Endnotes are also identified in the main human anatomy of the writing with a tiny superscript number. Then, alongside a relevant number at the end of the paper, an author can provide another explanation.

Chicago Style Bibliography

Whether or not you follow the Author-Date or Notes-Bibliography method of documenting sources, your paper must have a dedicated page that gathers all your references. In the Author-Date style, this page should really be titled as References. And when you follow the Notes-Bibliography method, you need to name it as Bibliography. This is usually the last page of the document and contains to support the full bibliographical information out of all the external sources you’ve found in the work—both those cited in the written text and in the footnotes.

This is a set of rules to follow when forming a Chicago style reference page:

  • This site has to include separate entries for each source you purchased and may aswell include any relevant sources.
  • Each entry should begin on a new line.
  • Near the top of the page, there should be a centered title – Bibliography (for Notes-Bibliography style) or References (for Author-Date style).
  • Entries have to be listed in alphabetical order.

Chicago Style Citations

Every Chicago style citation includes four elements: the author’s information, the title of the source, pages where the used information can be found in the foundation, and the publication details—which include the publisher’s name, journal name, and year of publication.

Here are a few general rules for forming citations in line with the Chicago style:

  • Authors’ Names: List the last and first name of each and every author.
  • Titles: Titles of longer works, such as books and journals, are italicized. Titles of shorter works, such as articles, chapters, and poems, are put in quotation marks.
  • Publication Information: The publisher is listed first, followed by the journal’s name.
  • Punctuation: In a Chicago style paper, all major elements are separated by periods.

Below you can find types of Chicago style citations for different types of sources in the Notes-Bibliography system:

Book (one author)

  • The very first footnote: Anastasia Rheinbay, Dancing in Flight: My Journey as an Artist. (New York: Penguin, 2014), 33-45.
  • The next footnote: Rheinbay, Dancing in Flight, 9.
  • In the bibliography: Rheinbay, Anastasia. Dancing in Flight: My Journey being an Artist. Ny: Penguin, 2014.

Book (two or more authors)

  • The very first footnote: Inna P. James and Ryan Grist, Just how to Exist: How Not To Exist, 1999–2003 (New York: McGraw Hill, 2002), 58.
  • The second footnote: James and Grist, Exist, 58.
  • In the bibliography: James, Inna P., and Ryan Grist. How to Exist: How Never to Exist, 1999–2003. New York: McGraw Hill, 2002.

Translated Book

First, specify the author and then the translator.

  • The initial footnote: Kate Cassimer, The Philosophy of the Happiness, trans. Fritz C. A. Koelln and James P. Leston (New York: Beacon Press, 1955), 14.
  • The 2nd footnote: Cassimer, Kate. The Philosophy of the Happiness. Translated by Fritz C. A. Koelln and James P.
  • In the bibliography: Cassimer, Kate. The Philosophy of the Happiness. Translated by Fritz C. A. Koelln and James P. Leston. Ny: Beacon Press, 1955.

Book Chapter (Part of a book)

  • The initial footnote: John D. Rockefeller, “How I Made My Millions. ” in An easy task to Be Rich: The First Man of Steel. (Chicago: College of Chicago Press, 2011), 73.
  • The next footnote: Rockefeller, “Made Millions, ” 72-75.
  • In the bibliography: Rockefeller, John D. “How I Made My Millions. ” In Easy To Be Rich: The very first Man of Steel. 72-75. Chicago: Academy of Chicago Press, 2010.

E-book

  • The very first footnote: Henry James, The Turn of the Screw (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.
  • The second footnote: James, Turn of the Screw.
  • In the bibliography: James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw. Ny: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.

Journal Article

When citing articles, list specific pages in the footnote(s), but list the whole selection of the article in the Bibliography.

  • The very first footnote: Aidan Novak, “Transgender Journey: woMan” Men’s Health 58 (2023): #238.
  • The 2nd footnote: Novak, “Transgender Journey: woMan, ” 52.
  • In the bibliography: Novak, Aidan. “Transgender Journey: woMan. ” Men’s Health (2023): #238 52-60.

Website

On line sources (including scholarly articles) can be mentioned in the writing or as a note and, in turn, omitted from the bibliography. As an example: (“As of December 2017, the wall bordering Mexico and the usa will be built, as listed on the national United states of america Government internet site... ”). If your more formal citation is needed, it doesn’t have tips. Include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

  • The very first footnote: “FDA Guidelines. ” Last modified May 18, 2011,
  • The second footnote: “FDA Guidelines.”

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