AMA stands for American Medical Association. It is an organization that provides standards for scientific and medical writing. This format is used by experts in the fields of medicine, pharmacy, biology, and others. This format is also used by authors to make their scientific work easier to read and understand. This format includes rules for how titles, abstracts, medical terms, and more should be written. The AMA paper format is different from the APA or MLA formats that are commonly used for school work. The AMA format is more complicated and takes more time to complete properly. Here are a few things you need to know about the AMA paper format: 1) Title: The title must accurately and clearly describe the content of the article. Medical terms must be used correctly when defining your article title. 2) Abstract: An abstract is a brief summary of your article containing the research objectives, methods used, main results and final findings. 3) Medical Terms: Medical terms should be used correctly while writing your article to make it easy for your readers to understand. 4) Quotations: Quotations must be traced to the original source to avoid plagiarism or copyright infringement. 5) References: References should be accompanied by a link to the original source to make it easily accessible to your readers. By adhering to these rules, you will make your scientific writing more understandable and accessible to your readers!

What is the AMA format?

The AMA format includes the use of simple and clear language, with an emphasis on the right words. This also includes using correct punctuation and accurate spelling. This format has a strict structure for the sections of the paper, including the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. Each section must be written in a different way to effectively convey information to the reader. This format also requires authors to include references from other sources to support their arguments.

1. Correct references can help increase the credibility and validity of your research. The AMA reference format allows you to cite relevant sources in a way that complies with industry standards. 2. The AMA reference format also helps avoid plagiarism, as it ensures that you give others credit for the ideas and information you use in your research. 3. Using the AMA reference format will also make it easier for readers to find sources used in your research, so they can track down more information on the topic.

  • To logically structure your paper
  • To make it easier to follow your text
  • To follow guidelines for your arguments and thesis statements
  • To credit the name of a talented contributor
  • To avoid problems with plagiarism

The AMA format consists of: 1. Title: The title must describe the contents of the paper clearly and briefly. 2. Abstract: Abstract is a brief summary of the paper which includes objectives, methods, results, and conclusions. 3. Introduction: The introduction contains the research background and the reasons behind this research. 4. Methods: Methods contain a description of how the research was conducted, including the study design, sample population, instruments used for data collection, and data analysis techniques used. 5. Results: This section contains the results of the data analysis that has been done previously. 6. Discussion: The discussion contains the interpretation of the results and the implications for clinical practice or other applications of the findings of this study. 7. Conclusion: Conclusion is a brief summary of the main findings in this paper and their implications for clinical practice or other applications. 8. References: References contain a list of sources used to support the arguments or findings in this paper.

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Basic formatting of AMA papers

The author must also state the author’s name, title, place and year of publication. If the source cited is an article, the author also needs to state the name of the magazine or journal where the article was published.

General rules for AMA formatting

1. Year 2. Month 3. Day 4. Hour 5. Minute 6. Second

  • Double space your text
  • Use 1″ margins
  • Font size must be 12 and can be any font type. You can use two types of Type (Serif for Body Text and SANS Serif for titles and subtitles) with proper use of styles, such as Bold and Italics for scholarly publications. (5.22.4)
  • Use a 1/2″ indent
  • You must add page numbers – start with the title page. Pages must be numbered sequentially. Page numbers are usually placed in the upper right corner.
  • References must be listed and numbered in the order they were cited in your paper.

Ground Rules for AMA Quotes

  • The superscript number will make it possible to find the complete reference on your AMA’s “Reference List” page.
  • Each citation number must match the reference number.
  • Apply Arabic superscript numerals.
  • Full references must begin with the appropriate number.
  • The way references are written depends on the type of source students have to cite; Knowing how to cite a website doesn’t mean a student automatically knows how to cite a book.
  • Bibliographical entries must have the author’s last name and first & middle initials without punctuation.
  • Apply commas to add more than one author. Example: 3. Lawrence T, Barman PJ. Cardiac denervation in diabetes. BMJ. 1973; 4: 584-586.
  • Apply Sentence Cases to Titles – no exceptions (Capitalizes the first word of the title – no need to do it with the rest of the words. Example: Go with the wind).
  • Abbreviations and italics of material titles based on the National Library of Medicine Database.
  • Separate each reference by period into bibliographical categories.
  • Reverse the author names. Use initials for first and middle names without putting a period between initials. It should be like this: SouthLastName, firstinitialmiddleinitial.
  • Add the issue number in brackets after the volume number (for journals).

Rules regarding punctuation marks

  • Use commas in cases where the item is a sub-element of a bibliographical component or a set of related components such as an author’s name.
  • Use a semicolon if elements in a category vary from one another (release date & source title) / If multiple occurrences of related components are available in the group + before the volume identification information.
  • Use a colon before the publisher name, between titles and subtitles, and after connecting phrases (e.g., “at,” “served at”).

1. “What do you do to take care of your mental health?” I make an effort to take time to spend with family and friends, exercise regularly, and make sure I get enough sleep. I also try to avoid stress by identifying the sources of my stress and making plans to deal with them.

An example of an AMA quote: Cannabis herb has been used in medicine for centuries. Historical evidence proving its medical use dates back to 2737bce¹¹.

References in the AMA Bibliography

This also includes using proper styles for references, such as using APA or MLA formats.

NLM is the standard used by the National Library to classify and index journals. This standard allows users to easily find the journal they are looking for. This standard also helps librarians to manage their collections more efficiently.

1. Quotations must be written in bold or italic. 2. Each quote must begin with the name of the person who made it, followed by quotation marks (“). 3. After the name of the person providing the quote, write down the sentence or phrase they said. 4. If you want to create a new paragraph after the quote, use an indent to mark that it is part of the quote. 5. If you want to include additional information about who said the quote, use brackets at the end of the quote and include the additional information within it.

  • Appropriate superscript number.
  • Author(s).
  • Article title.
  • Abbreviated journal title.
  • Date; Volume (problem): pages.
  • Online journal articles.
Example: 1. Kumar Rn, Room W, Pertwee RG. Pharmacological action and therapeutic use of cannabis and cannabinoids. Anesthesia. 2001 Dec 7; 56(2):1059-1068.
2. O’Barry M, Sakas S. Determining the implications of obesity in adults and children. Adult health. 2010 Sep 14; 45 (10): 583-596.

1. Do not use impolite or abusive language. 2. Do not use words that are racist, discriminatory, or harassing. 3. Do not send messages that are not relevant to the topic of discussion. 4. Don’t post personal information about other people without their permission. 5. Do not post links to websites that are not related to the topic of discussion or spam in online forums. 6. Do not use the forum for the purpose of promoting a particular business or product without the permission of the forum owner.

  • Acronyms, abbreviations, and initials: Instructed to use acronyms, abbreviations, and initials, unless they are well known. This may include accepted units of measurement and some well-recognized terms. If you use acronyms, abbreviations, or initials, say them with the first use, even if they’re well known. Don’t put a period between the letters of acronyms, abbreviations, or initials. Mentioned names must always appear as full names in the manuscript text. If included in the reference, use a two-letter abbreviation (first name and initial middle name).
  • Number: Numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.) must be used in all writing, except when: the number begins a sentence or title. To indicate the time, use AM or PM in lowercase (6 p.m.). Conventional 12 hour clock time is preferred. However, a 24-hour or military convention can also be used if you need to show the exact time.
  • Date: When you need to provide the date in text, it is preferable to use numbers for the day and year, and write the month – e.g. October 2, 2020. If you are using a date in a table, you can use the number for that month (eg 4/2/2010).
  • Measurement: For writing measurements, it is preferable to use standard SI measurements (international system of units). Numbers are always written in plain text. There’s a space after the number and before the unit, and it never menses after the unit (unless it ends a sentence). Don’t include commas in longer numbers (eg 1600 km instead of 1600 km).

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AMA Page Title

1. Page title: A title that describes the contents of the page. 2. Short description: A brief summary of what is shown on the page. 3. Keywords: Words that are related to the content of the page and can help search engines find your page. 4. Navigation: Directions for how people can move between pages on your website. 5. Logo or icon: An icon or logo to represent your website and help visitors remember it more easily.

  • Title [Capitalize the first letter of each main word in the title and subtitle]
  • Page number in the upper right corner
  • First name and last name
  • University
  • Student Number
  • Course title
  • Date
AMA Page Title

In-Text Citations: Format and Rules

For example: (Smith, email, April 15, 2019).

Example 1: “When I met with the doctor, he told me that ‘You have to be careful and follow the rules set by the government.'” (Dokter, 2020). Example 2: “I was very happy when I heard that we would be able to get back to work again” (Personal, 2020).

Example: 1. indirect quote (quote after comma, period): Smoking is believed to worsen respiratory function â¸. British Columbia Institute of Technology
2. direct quote (quote after quote sign): The engineer announced that “the house was built on solid ground.” â¸.

AMA Reference List

The reference list format for AMA papers includes the following information: 1. Author’s name (if any). Publication year. Title of book / article / report / document. Publisher name, place of publication, and page number (if any). 2. Author’s name (if any). Publication date. The title of the article or web page. URL (if available). 3. Author’s name (if any). Publication date. Film / video / television program titles. The name of the producer and the name of the television station or website showing the film / video / television program.

and should be placed at the end of the quote. The AMA Reference List format requires authors to include the following information: author’s name, year of publication, title of article or book, name of journal or publisher, volume and page number (if applicable). Authors should also include links to online sources if they use them. Example of an AMA Reference List: ¹Smith, J. (2020). The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health. Journal of Mental Health, 12(3), 123-134.

General rule

  • References must be listed numerically in the order they appear in the text of your paper.
  • The type, order, and format of information you must include in your list of references will vary depending on the type of source from which you are borrowing information and/or ideas.
  • Regardless of the type of source you refer to, you may not include a comma between the last name and first initial of an author, editor, or director.
  • If you borrow a piece of information and/or an idea from a specific page or range of pages in a print job or a recognized web resource, you must identify the page at the end of the appropriate reference.
  • When you identify page numbers, or numbers, in entries in your reference list, be sure to include the numbers in full (eg use 111-112 instead of 111-2).

Digital document

1. Author’s Name: The author’s name must be listed at the beginning of the reference. 2. Article Title: The article title must be listed after the author’s name. 3. Journal Name: The digital journal name must be listed after the article title. 4. Year of Publication: The year of publication of the digital journal must be listed after the name of the journal. 5. Volume and Number: The volume and issue number of the digital journal should be listed after the year it was published. 6. Start and End Pages: The start and end pages of the referenced articles should be listed after the volume and issue number of the digital journal. 7. URL or DOI (Digital Object Identifier): The URL or DOI for the referenced article must be listed at the end of the reference, before a closing bracket ().

  • Article title and subtitle (as applicable)
  • Journal names are abbreviated and italicized
  • Year
  • Volume number
  • Build number
  • Part or supplement number, when applicable
  • Inclusive page number – do not omit digits from the inclusive page number. The year of publication is followed by a semicolon; The volume number and issue number (in brackets) are followed by the colon; The starting page number is followed by a hyphen, and the ending page number is followed by a period.
Example: 1. Compston A, Coles A. Multiple Sclerosis. Lancet. 2008; 372 (9648): 1502-1517.
2. Beran RG, Braley TJ, Segal BM, Chervin Rd. Sleep-nut breathing in multiple sclerosis. neurology. 2013; 80 (14): 1354-1355.
3. Polland SM, Calleigh as. Changing the conversation, changing the culture: medical education journal club. Medical meditation. 2011; 45(11):1134.

Example: Love and Reconciliation: Examining human emotions. Website. Published 1997. Retrieved 30 April 2004.

Online newspapers are digital versions of traditional newspapers. Online newspapers provide the same news, articles and other information as print newspapers. However, online newspapers also have some additional advantages. This includes greater accessibility, flexibility to choose the news you want to read, and the ability to access news from anywhere in the world. In addition, online newspapers also usually offer interactive features such as discussion forums and polls.

Example: Bros R. The promise of precision recipes. Washington Post. June 24, 2000: A1. Retrieved 10 October 2001.

1. “The Impact of Social Media on Student Engagement and Learning Outcomes: A Systematic Review” by Nada Al-Haddad, et al. (2020). 2. “Exploring the Role of Social Media in Education: A Systematic Literature Review” by M.A. Alghamdi, et al. (2018). 3. “Social Media Use in Higher Education: A Systematic Literature Review” by S.M. Al-Khalifa, et al. (2017). 4. “The Impact of Social Media on Teaching and Learning: A Systematic Review” by Jiaqi Li, et al. (2016). 5. “Social Media in Education: A Systematic Literature Review” by M.-C. Kinshuk, et al. (2015).

Example: Jahden Js. Can readiness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158(2):106-107. Retrieved 1 June 2004.

Online government and organization reports are reports issued by governments or organizations to convey information about their activities. These reports usually contain information about programs, projects, policies, and results that have been achieved. This report can also contain statistical data on social, economic and environmental conditions in an area. Some examples of online government and organization reports include the US Department of Health annual reports, World Health Organization (WHO) annual reports, and World Bank annual reports.

Example: Kahdyen L, Gruber J. Does public insurance increase the efficiency of medical care? Medicaid expansion and pediatric hospitalization. Published February 2000. Accessed February 26, 2004.

Format: Author Name. (Year). Presentation title. In Conference Name, [Media type], Conference date and place. Accessed from URL. Example: Kurniawan, A. (2020). The Impact of Social Media on the Development of Online Businesses in Indonesia. In the International Conference on Business and Management, [Online], 17-18 June 2020. Accessed from

Example: Loshabel F. Talk presented at: National Human Research Protection Advisory Committee; April 9, 2001; Bethesda, M.D. Retrieved 26 February 2004

Print materials

1. Author’s Name: The author’s name must be listed at the beginning of the reference. 2. Book Title: The book title must be listed after the author’s name. 3. Edition: If any, the edition of the book must be listed after the title of the book. 4. Publisher: The name of the publisher must be listed after the edition (if any). 5. Year of Publication: The year of publication must be listed after the name of the publisher.

  • Family name and first and middle initial
  • Chapter title (if any)
  • Surname and first and middle initial of the book’s author or editor (or translator if applicable)
  • Book title and subtitle (if any)
  • Volume number and volume title (when there is more than one volume)
  • Edition number (does not indicate the first edition)
  • Place of publication
  • The country name must be spelled when it appears alone.
  • Publisher Name
  • Copyright year
  • Page number (when a specific page is cited)
Example: 1. Luckerston A, Luckerston VB, Nunn Ls. Destiny. Maryland, MN: Twenty-first century books; 2020. 2. Charston SK, Adams Jn. Childhood cancer: A nursing review. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 1987.

“When citing a book, be sure to include the author’s name, book title, and other relevant information. If you use a quote from the book, also include the page number where the quote originates.” (Smith, 2020, p. 25).

1. The Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger 2. To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee 3. 1984, by George Orwell 4. The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald 5. Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen

Example: Sack O. Uncle Tungsten. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf; 2001.

John, Sarah, David, Rachel, Mark, and Emma: Welcome to our class!

Example: Beckon O, Laurent B. Miracles work. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf; 2009.

to show that there are more authors. Smith, Jones, Brown et al.

Example: Beckon O, Laurent B, Seichen P et al. miracles work. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf; 2009.

Hello, This is a message from me. I would like to inquire about a product that you offer. Do you have more information about the product? Thank You.

Example: Galanter M, ed. Research services in the managed care era. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenary; 2001.

To all members of the organization, Welcome to our organization! We are very happy to have you as part of our family. We are confident that with your cooperation and dedication, we will achieve our collective goal. We hope you will enjoy your time together and share positive experiences. Feel free to contact the management team with any questions or concerns to be resolved. Thank you for joining our organization! Regards, Management Team

Example: World Health Organization. Injury: Leading cause of global disease burden, 2000. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

usually published to update the information contained in the first edition of the book. Typically, second or later editions of books will cover the most recent changes in the topics covered, including new research and more detailed information. The second edition of the book may also include technology updates or other developments that have occurred since the first edition was published. In addition, the second edition of the book may also include a review of how the topic has developed over the last few years.

Example: Adkinson N, Yunginger J, Busse W, Bochner B, Holgate S, Middleton E, EDS. Middleton Allergies: Principles and Practice. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2003.

A book is a medium that contains a collection of writings, pictures or illustrations published for a specific purpose. Books can be textbooks, novels, magazines, comics, encyclopedias, and others. Books can also be used to convey information and knowledge to readers.

Example: Solensky R. Allergy drugs: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockkey P, ed. Allergen and allergen immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004: 585-606.

Article print journals are journals that cover various aspects of the laws and regulations that apply in a country. These journals usually include information about laws, regulations, court decisions, and more. This journal can be used to help legal experts and legal practitioners to understand more about developing legal issues. This journal can also be used by lawyers to find information relevant to their cases.

Example: Colbert S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis Regulator 1 Gene mutation causes paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Neuronal arch. 2004; 61(7):1025-1029.

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