ASA stands for American Sociological Association. This is a professional organization founded in 1905 to provide standards for sociology writing. This standard includes the format of citations, style of writing, and types of sources that are allowed. The ASA citation format allows researchers to cite sources in a way that is easy for readers to recognize and follow. The ASA citation format consists of several parts: author’s name, year of publication, book or article title, location (page or paragraph), and ISBN number (if any). The author’s name should be listed first, followed by the year of publication. The title of the book or article must be written in italics and placed between brackets. The location of the page or paragraph must be mentioned after the title of the book or article. The ISBN number only needs to be mentioned if you are citing a book; if you are citing an article, there is no need to mention its ISBN number. Examples of ASA citation formats: (Smith, 2020, Page 12) or (Smith, 2020, Paragraph 4)

What is Ash

The ASA citation format includes the year in which the source was published, the author’s name, book or article title, and other relevant information. This format also requires the use of parentheses to cite sources directly. Using the ASA citation format also requires the use of quotation marks to quote text directly.

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The title page should include the work title, author name and other relevant information. The abstract must contain a brief summary of the content of the work and the purpose of the research. The post format should include information about the topic, methods, results and conclusions. In-text citations must include the original source and a link to that source. The reference list must contain all sources used in the research or writing. Formatting specifications vary depending on the type of publication or journal the work is intended to be published in.

This differs from the MLA style, where the date is only entered if no year is specified.

ASA Citation Basics

1. Quotations must be written in a stand-alone sentence and begin with a capital letter. 2. Every quote must be put in quotation marks (“) at the beginning and end of the quote. 3. If the quote is more than one line, each next line must start with quotation marks (“). 4. If there is an unusual use of words or technical terms, an explanation must be enclosed between quotation marks (“). 5. If any part of the quote is hidden, it must be replaced with a period (…). 6. Each citation must be accompanied by a source, including the name of the author, title of book/article/magazine, and date of publication if available.

Format: First Name [space] Last Name Example: John Smith Answer: John Smith

  • Make sure all written text (including footnotes, etc.) is in a font size of 12 and double-spaced.
  • Place 1 ¼ inch margins on each side.
  • There should be a separate title page that includes the paper title, names of all authors, word count, and title footnotes (it should include author names, addresses, credits, grants, and acknowledgments)
  • Abstract should also be included if necessary. It should have a title and be around 200 words long.
  • Pages, tables, numbers, footnotes and endnotes are numbered sequentially (1,2,3…) or (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3…)

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ASA Title Page.

The title page should include the title, author’s name and other relevant information. The title must be clear and easy to read. The author’s name must be written correctly and completely. You must also ensure that all information listed on the title page complies with the rules that apply to a particular document format.

1. Name of author and year of publication. 2. The title of the article or book cited. 3. Name of the journal, magazine, or book publisher cited. 4. Volume and journal number (if any). 5. Initial and ending page of the quote (if any).

  • Asa header, which is also the full title of the work
  • Author’s name and institution
  • The total number of words
  • Address of the author, or person receiving communications and feedback regarding the work
  • Credits or acknowledgments from all contributors or sponsors
  • Research grants/funding or papers

ASA Abstract

The abstract provides a brief overview of the topic, methods, results and conclusions of the essay. This helps readers to decide whether they want to continue reading or not.


ASA subheadings use Arabic numerals to identify body paragraphs. Example: 1., 2., 3., and so on. Each paragraph should start with a suitable subheading, such as 1., 2., 3., and so on. These subheadings can also be used to break up more information about a particular topic in paragraphs. For example, if you wanted to cover several aspects of your main topic, you could use subheadings such as 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 for each of those aspects.

1. Subheading 1: The subtitle is written in capital letters and ends with a full stop. 2. Subheading 2: The subtitle is written in lowercase and ends with a full stop. 3. Subheading 3: The subtitle is written in lower case, starting with a capital letter, and ending with a full stop.

  1. First level subtitles
  • The letters in the cap indicate first-level subtitles
  • Don’t use bold letters
  • Don’t start with a header like Introduction
  1. Second level subheading
  • Crooked
  • Title Case (first letter of each word is capitalized except for articles and prepositions)
  • Don’t use bold letters
  1. Third level subheading
  • Crooked
  • Only the first word is capitalized
  • Must be followed by a period
  • It must be indented at the beginning of the paragraph

Asa General Quotations Rules

1. Use lowercase letters for word beginnings and endings, unless the word is a name or an abbreviation. 2. Use correct punctuation, such as periods, question marks, and exclamation points. 3. Don’t use unfamiliar abbreviations. 4. Don’t use excessive capitalization or capitalization everywhere. 5. Use spaces between words and paragraphs to make the text easier to read. 6. Use a polite and professional style of language when writing on social media or online discussion forums. 7. Don’t use misspellings or slang in your writing.

  • This type of work avoids using the first person unless instructed otherwise.
  • Since the paper will be heavily referenced, it is best to avoid giving an opinion – unless the essay is argumentative.
  • Writing should be easy and written in the active voice. Jargon, common expressions, slang and superlatives are always avoided.
  • Words like “percent” and “paragraph” are always spelled and not abbreviated, unless they appear as data in a table or graph.
  • Gender provisions are only used if they are critical to the specific analysis. Otherwise, avoid using references such as “humanity” and instead use non-gendered terms such as “humanity” or “global population”, etc.
  • Racial and ethnic stereotypes are another thing to be careful of. Be specific when describing race or ethnicity. Use Japanese instead of Asian; Mexican is not Latin.
  • If the text requires the use of an acronym, provide the full name with the acronym in parentheses. After this you can stick to the acronym:
    (first time ever) based on a report by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) …
    (later in text) The CIA report concludes …

ASA in-text citation

How and when to use in-text citations

“According to Smith (2020), ‘Public policy should reflect the interests of society as a whole.’ ” “In a study published in 2019, Jones concluded that ‘public policy must be based on ethical principles and human rights.’ ”

  • If the author’s name is in the sentence, just include the year:
ASA in text quote example: When Vasari (1550) studied Renaissance painters …
  • If not – put the author’s last name in brackets:
ASA in text quote example: When Renaissance painters studied (Vasari 1550) …
  • When citing a reprinted work with multiple public dates, list the first date and then the most recent, separated by italics.
ASA in text quote example: (Reed and Christgau 1978/2013)

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ASA Quotes For Multiple Authors

1. “When we talk about technological progress, many people ignore the impact it has on society” (Smith, Jones, and Brown, 2020). 2. Smith, Jones, and Brown (2020) conclude that “technological advances can have a significant impact on society”.

  • For two people, write their surname, followed by the year of publication.

(Smith, 2020)

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  • For three or more, include all last names in the first citation. In subsequent citations, include the first name and ‘et al.’ Together with the year of publication.
Asa Citation Examples: (Breton, Magritte, and Dali 1961) – First Quotations
(Breton et al., 1961) – Next quote
  • If the work does not provide an author’s name, provide enough information to find the work in the list of references.
Asa Citation Examples: (U.S. Department of Justice 1977:82)
  • For multiple quotes, separate the references with semicolons and place them in order.
Asa Citation Examples: (Rutt 1950; Smith 1952)
(Kenway et al. 1934; Stewart 1981)
  • To cite previously published and re-released reprinted work, including the year of publication. Earliest first, followed by slashes and later years.
Asa Citation Examples: (Smith and Greyjoy 1995/2019)
  • For unpublished work that will be published soon, use upcoming instead of date. If a date is not specified, use N.D.
Asa Citation Examples: Cramer (N.D.) conducts research on twentieth century interracial relations.

Quoting quotes

Example: John Smith wrote, “Happiness is the key to a meaningful life” (Smith 2020:23).

Example: In his studies, Newton (1704: 21) found that …

ASA Reference Page.

American Sociological Association. (2020). Manual of Style (17th ed.). Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

  • First and middle names are included for all authors unless they use initials in the publication.
  • If the author is repeating, still include their full name in all references. In this case, arrange the jobs in chronological order from oldest to newest.
  • If the same author is in a single one-author reference as the first author and in a multi-author reference, you must place the single-author reference first.
  • When you are including multiple works by the same author from the same year, include the letter after the year and list all references to one author in alphabetical order.
  • Be sure to include all publication authors. You may not use et al in the reference section.

ASA: Author. (Year). Title. Journal Name, Volume(Number), pages. WHAT: Author, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Number), pages.

Example: Smith, John. 2020. Books about Cats (italics). New York: ABC Publishers.

ASA reference example: James, Henry. 2003. Screw rotation. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.

Examples: Kotler, P. and Keller, K.L. 2012. Marketing Management (14th edition). Jakarta: Erlangga. Retrieved April 5, 2020 {}.

ASA reference example: James, Henry. 2003. Screw rotation. New York: Kindle Version of Penguin Books. Accessed January 18, 2017. {Link}

Example: Smith, J. 2020. “Educational Policy in the Digital Age”. Journal of Technology Education 3 (2): 123-128.

ASA reference example: FEEKIN, BO. 2008. “Chasing tree frogs.” National Geographic #182. 6-10.

Example: Smith, J. 2020. “Understanding Government Policy.” Economic Magazine, April 2020, pp. 12-15.

ASA reference example: Geary, Rachel. 2012. “Problems with mastery learning.” New York Times, April 2002. PP. 15-23.

Example: Smith, J. (2020, April 15). How To Cite Asa Style Web Pages. ABC Publishers. Retrieved monthly, year

ASA reference example: Lee, Bruce. 03.09.2004. The birth of a nation. Retrieved 18.01.2017. {link}

Footnotes and endnotes.

Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of the page that contain additional information or references to the material presented. Endnotes are notes that are placed at the end of the document and contain additional information or references to the material presented. Both types of notes allow you to provide additional resources without interrupting the main storyline.

Endnotes provide additional information that cannot be included in the main text. It also allows you to link quotes and references to specific parts of the text.

Footnotes usually contain additional information related to the topic covered in the text. This includes other sources, definitions, or further explanation of the terms used. Footnotes may also include links to other Web sites to provide readers with access to additional information.

Endnotes should include all sources used in the writing, but need not include information already mentioned in the text. The endnotes should also contain information about the author and year of publication for each source. If there is a direct quote or reference to a specific location in the text, the endnote should include the page or paragraph where the quote occurs.

For example: If you use footnotes to define difficult vocabulary in a text, don’t do the same in endnotes. Avoid mixing them to give stronger paper continuity.

ASA paper sample.