The field of sociology is where you'd most commonly find an ASA format or manuscript format as it also referred to as. If you are a sociology student, it’s a top chance the general guide to the ASA citation from pro essay writers can come you in handy. Let’s start with the ASA definition.

What Is ASA

ASA is a citation style utilized in the field of sociology. ASA, being an abbreviation, represents the “American Sociological Association”. ASA format citation is certainly caused by used by scholars, academics, and students of sociology inside their manuscripts or articles which they submit to the sociology department or field of sociology over all. If the ASA citation format just isn't used properly, it might put the work in the position to be discredited or, perhaps, it may lead to its acknowledgements being postponed along side its writer’s career development.

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When using ASA citation format, it's important to pay close attention to the certain elements of the paper the format affects, like the title page, abstract, heading format, in-text citations, reference list, and its own formatting specifics.

ASA citation style bears a close resemblance to the widely used APA style. The greatest similarity is that both styles use parenthetical references. These appear at the end of the paper in the “References” section. MLA style papers, as an example, call that section “Works Cited” and format it in a different way. Still another noticeable feature of the ASA citation format is its increased exposure of the date. It always follows the author’s name.

Basics of ASA Citation

There are many general formatting requirements from the ASA Style Guide that want to be employed when using the ASA citation format.

Adhere to the following format, unless instructed otherwise:

  • Ensure all written text (including footnotes, and so forth ) is in font size 12 and is double-spaced.
  • Place margins of 1 ¼ inches on each side.
  • There ought to be a separate title page that features the title of the paper, names of all the authors, the word count, and title footnote (it should include the name of the author(s), addresses, credits, grants, and acknowledgements)
  • An abstract also needs to be included if necessary. It should have a title and be about 200 words long.
  • Pages, tables, figures, footnotes, and endnotes are numbered sequentially (1, 2, 3…) or (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3…)

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ASA Title Page

The title page is the initial thing one sees when picking right up a paper. It is your task to make it look sharp and to create it relative to all of the rules so that it looks presentable and professional.

The ASA citation format title page frequently contains the following information:

  • ASA header, which will be also the total title of the work
  • Names and institutions of the writers
  • A total word count
  • Address of the writer, or person who receives communication and feedback regarding the work
  • Credits or acknowledgments of all contributors or sponsors
  • Grants/funding of the research or the paper

ASA Abstract

The abstract appears on a different page involving the title page and the start of the essay. It often contains about 150-200 words. If an abstract page is included, it often lists several key words that help identify the essay’s details of study.


The ASA citation format uses subheadings to arrange body paragraphs. They do not serve to simply name the paragraphs of the document; using “Introduction” in a subheading wouldn’t be a great choice.

You will find three quantities of subheadings. Subheadings in ASA formatting are always left-aligned and are never written in the bold letters. Observe that the editing style of these subheadings correspond with how they should can be found in the text:

  • Letters in caps signify the first-level subheading
  • Do not use bold font
  • Do not begin with a heading such as Introduction
  1. Second-Level Subheading
  • Italicized
  • Title case (the first letter of each word is capitalized except for articles and prepositions)
  • Do not use bold font
  1. Third-level subheading
  • Italicized
  • Only first word is capitalized
  • Should be followed by a period
  • Must certanly be indented at the start of the paragraph

General ASA Citation Rules

There are some simple rules when it comes to the ASA writing style:

  • This sort of work avoids using the first-person, unless instructed otherwise.
  • Considering that the paper is likely to be heavily referenced, it is best to avoid giving opinions—unless the essay is argumentative.
  • The writing must certanly be straightforward and written in the active voice. Jargon, common expressions, slang, and superlatives are always most useful avoided.
  • Words like ”percent” and “verses” are always spelled and never abbreviated, unless they appear as data in tables or graphs.
  • Gendered terms are merely used if they're crucial in the specific analysis. Otherwise, avoid references such as for instance “mankind” and instead use non-gendered terms such as “humanity” or “the global population”, etc .
  • Racial and ethnic stereotyping is another thing to be cautious of. Be specific when describing a race or ethnicity. Use Japanese instead of Asian; Mexican rather than Latino.
  • If the text requires acronym usage, provide the name with the acronym in parentheses. Following this, you can adhere to the acronym:
    (first time) Centered on a report conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)...
    (later in the text) The CIA report concludes…

ASA In-Text Citations

How and When to Use In-Text Citations

The ASA citation format is similar to APA in terms of in-text citations and they are used when presenting information from any source. The general rule for American Sociological Association citations is always to state the last name of mcdougal and the first publishing date of the referenced material. Here are some in-text citation examples:

  • If the author's name is in the sentence, simply include the year:
ASA in text citation example: When Vasari (1550) studied the renaissance painters…
  • Or even - put the author’s last name inside the parentheses:
ASA in text citation example: If the renaissance painters were studied (Vasari 1550)...
  • When citing reprinted work with a few publish dates, list the very first date after which the most recent one, separated with a slash.
ASA in text citation example: (Reed and Christgau 1978/2013)

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ASA Citation for Multiple Authors

Listed below are examples of using ASA in-text citations for multiple authors.

  • For 2, write both their surnames, followed by the season of publication.

ASA citation example:

(Bockris and Malanga 2003)

  • For three or maybe more, include all last names in the very first citation. In later citations, include the first name and ‘et al. ’ combined with year of publication.
ASA citation example: (Breton, Magritte, and Dali 1961) — first citation
(Breton et al. 1961) — later citations
  • If the work will not provide the writer’s name, give enough information to find the work in the reference list.
ASA citation example: (U.S. Department of Justice 1977:82)
  • For multiple citations, separate the references with a semicolon and place them sequentially.
ASA citation example: (Rutt 1950; Smith 1952)
(Kenway et al. 1934; Stewart 1981)
  • For a citation of reprinted work that were published earlier in the day and premiered again, include both years of publication. First the initial, followed by a slash and the later year.
ASA citation example: (Smith and Greyjoy 1995/2019)
  • For unpublished work that is to be published soon, use forthcoming instead of a date. If the date is not determined, use n. d.
ASA citation example: Cramer (n. d. ) conducted research on interracial relationships of the twentieth century.

Citing Quotes

Short quotations in the torso of the written text should have quotation marks. Quotations of more than 40 words are called block quotations and really should be offset from all of those other text with a single space. When using block quotes in ASA citation format, omit quotation marks. The works are cited as usual, although aside from the year of the publication, the page number also needs to be included. The year is separated from the pagination with a semicolon.

Example: In his studies, Newton (1704:21) discovered that…

ASA Reference Page

The ASA citation reference page should focus on the word REFERENCES. All references are double-spaced and are placed using a hanging indent. Capitalize the first letter of every thing except for prepositions, articles, and conjunctions—although you need to capitalize them if they are in the very beginning of the reference’s title or subtitle.
References are listed in alphabetical order on the basis of the authors’ last names.

  • First and middle names are included for several authors unless they used initials in the publication.
  • If the author repeats, still include their name on all of the references. If so, arrange the task in chronological order from oldest to newest.
  • If the same author is in both a single-authored reference as the first author and in a multi-authored reference, you should place single-authored references first.
  • When you're including multiple works by the exact same author(s) from the same year, include letters after the year and list all of the references from one author alphabetically.
  • Ensure that you include most of the authors of the publications. You may not use et al in the REFERENCES section.

The ASA reference page looks similar to APA with a couple of deviations. This is how to cite the most common kinds of references:

How to Cite Books:
Author [Last, First]. Year of Publication. Title (italicized). Host to Publishing: Publisher.

Example of an ASA reference: James, Henry. 2003. The Turn of the Screw. New York: Barns & Noble Books.

How to Cite E-Books:
Author [Last, First]. Year of Publication. Title (italicized). Host to Publishing: Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year.

Example of an ASA reference: James, Henry. 2003. The Turn of the Screw. Nyc: Penguin Books Kindle Version. Retrieved January 18, 2017.

How to Cite a Journal Article:
Author [Last, First]. Year of Publication. "Title (italicized). ” Journal Name issue #: inclusive page numbers.

Example of an ASA reference: Feekins, Bo. 2008. “Chasing Tree Frogs.” National Geographic #182. 6-10

How to Cite a Magazine Article:
Author [Last, First]. Year of Pub. "Title (italicized). ” Magazine Name, Month Year, pp. Inclusive page numbers.

Example of an ASA reference: Geary, Rachel. 2012. “The Issue with Mastery Learning.” New York Times, April 2002. Pp. 15-23.

How to Cite a Web Page ASA Style:
Author [Last, First]. Date of Publishing. Title. Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year.

Example of an ASA reference: Lee, Bruce. 03. 09. 2004. Birth of a Nation. History. com. Retrieved 18. 01. 2017.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes and endnotes come into play when you need to expand the written text, add or explain information from the table, or cite materials with limited access.

Endnotes are more likely than footnotes to be properly used. It is better to decide on whether you will end up using endnotes or footnotes in your ASA format paper after which use one or one other consistently through the paper. Each entry must not exceed 100 words. They normally are placed at the end of the page that the reference is on.

Footnotes appear on a single page because the material being underlined or expanded upon. They should be numbered in the order they appear using Arabic numerals.

Endnotes are listed at the end of the paper after the ‘References’ section.
Both footnotes and endnotes are numbered for the ASA citation. There must always be some harmony in how they are utilized.

For example: If you are using footnotes to define difficult vocabulary in the text, usually do not do a similar thing in endnotes. Avoid mixing them around give the paper stronger continuity.

ASA Paper Example

Given that we have covered all of the details for ASA paper formatting, let’s look at a good example to get some practical experience and a better knowledge of ASA format citation.