Every student who studies Computer Science ought to know how to write a paper in the IEEE format to set themselves up for success. Whether you major in Programming, Information Technologies, or Web Communication, the IEEE paper format is widely used for styling academic papers written in these subjects, which explains why it is vital to master it.

This informative article will be your guide to the format. While reading it, you will see how to cite in IEEE. Additionally , we shall tell you what the IEEE style is, share the fundamental requirements given in this manual of style, provide some over all writing tips, and share handy IEEE citation examples.

What Is IEEE?

The IEEE reference format is just a commonly accepted style for writing, formatting, and citing research papers. The format was created on the basis of the Chicago Manual of Style and is trusted by students and researchers in Computer Science and relevant technical fields. This comprehensive guide will come in handy for every student or young professional involved with this field. Thus, if that’s your major, we recommend scanning this article rather than studying the complete edition of the latest IEEE manual of style, to avoid wasting time also to grasp the thought of how to create an IEEE paper easily.

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What does IEEE stand for, you could wonder? The letters IEEE stand for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is a professional association of electric engineering and associated disciplines. It absolutely was formed in 1963 on such basis as two American establishments – the Institute of Radio Engineers and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.

Being the largest association of technical professionals on earth, the IEEE sets the bar for aspiring technical specialists and researchers. To outline the standards for writing and organizing academic works in relevant fields, the IEEE has established a unique writing style manual.

The IEEE style consists of 2 critical elements:

  • In-text citations (direct & indirect)
  • References (Works Cited in MLA format)

In-text citations are short quotations taken from primary or secondary sources. In IEEE in text citation, they are numbered in square brackets. Every number alongside their corresponding citation identifies the complete citation listed in the References section in numerical order (commonly called the Works Cited list or bibliography page in other formats). In APA citation format they call it References.

Why Citing is essential for Your Academic Performance?

Collecting sources for an academic paper after which citing them can be rather time-consuming and tedious. Many students get the citation process too complicated and often overlook its importance.

Therefore why is citing sources vital for your academic performance? To start with, citing external sources helps students show their professors that they have invested time and effort in to researching the given topic. Also, this method has a few other purposes:

1. Providing Credibility
The primary reasons for using information from external sources are either to compliment the contents of your use relevant data, or to give a different look/opinion on the problem stated. In both cases, it means adding credibility to your own paper, making it look more trustworthy and complete, and establishing yourself being an authoritative author.

2. Ensuring Academic Integrity and Uniqueness
By not giving credit to other people’s works when relevant, you lose academic integrity and misrepresent your own personal academic achievements. At the same time, you risk the uniqueness of one's paper; as simply using external resources without citing them is most often considered plagiarism. Both issues can cause a low grade, failure of the task, and on occasion even expulsion.

Besides, IEEE features a special definition of plagiarism. The organization believes it is the use of another’s a few ideas, opinions, research findings, or words, without acknowledging the first writer and source. Plagiarism is a severe breach of professional conduct. It involves serious ethical & legal outcomes in many situations. Imagine someone would use your words 1 day once you’ve become a famous writer or scientist. How would you feel?

3. Acknowledging the Works of Other Specialists
The primary purpose of citing sources would be to give credit to the works of other people, wherever it is pertinent. When creating each citation, you acknowledge the hard work, time, and effort another person has put into his / her research.

4. Contributing to Further Research
Finally, the last reason that proves the value of citations is the undeniable fact that by giving accurate credit to others’ works, you are causing your own further research as well as helping other researchers locate the relevant sources you’ve cited effortlessly.

In general, it is worth noting that formatting weighs around 10-15% of the last grade you receive for a paper. With all this and other reasons, it is fair to say that students can’t count on the greatest grade with out their sources properly cited.

Basic Page Format

The conventional IEEE template contains the following sections in the same order:

  1. Title Page (including the article’s title, byline, membership, and first footnote)
  2. Abstract – should really be one paragraph long (preferably between 150 to 250 words)
  3. Index Terms
  4. Nomenclature (optional)
  6. Body of Article
  7. conclusion
  8. Appendix(es)
  9. Acknowledgment(s)
  10. References
  11. Photos and Biographies

To create an IEEE style paper, students should follow these basic rules:

  • Paper title – placed on the initial page, centered at the top, and 24pt font size.
  • Byline – placed below the paper title after having a line break, centered, 10pt font size. The byline has to range from the following information (every point needs to be on a different line):
  • Author’s name(s)
  • Author’s affiliation(s)
  • City & country location(s)
  • E-mail address(es).
  • Main body – all written in 10pt font size, the text should appear in two columns on the page. Columns on the last page need to be of the exact same length, meaning the author could need to add a column break.
  • The paper should start with the abstract and index terms.
  • With respect to the subject and context, papers may include additional sections like:
  • Acknowledgments
  • Appendices
  • Note to Practitioners
  • Nomenclature
  • The key body of the paper can be divided in to relevant sections and subsections. Each section and subsection should have a heading formatted according to the rules specified later in this guide.
  • All tables, equations, and figures have to be numbered in consecutive order and centered in the column.
  • IEEE papers should start with a drop cap two lines deep, followed closely by the next 8-12 characters or 1-2 words (depending where is more appropriate) in most caps.

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Parts of a Paper

  • Headings
    The IEEE format suggests authors of papers use four levels of hierarchy for the text’s section headings:

Type of Heading

Suggested Format



Centered, enumerated by Roman numerals, followed by a period of time. The first letter is set to 10pt. font size, the remainder should be 8pt., all caps



Flush left, enumerated by capital letters, followed closely by a period, upper and lower case, italic, 10pt. font size

A. Formal Frameworks


Indented one em, enumerated by Arabic numerals followed by a parenthesis, it runs into the written text in its sections, upper and lower case, italic, and accompanied by a colon. All set to 10pt. font size, as is the whole text in the primary body

1) Sophisticated Local Control: The term sophisticated local control refers to...


Just like tertiary, with the following exceptions: indented two ems, enumerated by lower case letters, and only requires capitalizing the first letter of the heading

a) Communication policies: Communication policies are developed to...

Enumeration of section headings is preferable, however, not mandatory – the author may use his or her preference. However , the chosen format should be consistently followed through the entire entire paper.

Aside from section headings, there are also Appendix, Reference, and Acknowledgement headings, which are formatted differently:

Appendix headings — the primary heading(s) in the paper’s Appendix or Appendixes should be formatted according to the standard style. The authors are allowed to use either letters or Roman numerals to enumerate Appendix headings (e. g. Appendix A or Appendix I)—but note that it will not be preceded with a Roman numeral. In case you only have one Appendix in the paper, its heading remains unnamed and unnumbered.

Reference and Acknowledgement headings — should be formatted like primary headings. Nevertheless , these should not be labeled or enumerated.

  • First Footnote
    The very first footnote in the article just isn't numbered (though all following footnotes must certanly be numbered consecutively) and should include three paragraphs:
  • The very first part should specify the received and revised (optional) dates of the paper. When there is multiple revised date, list these.
  • Another paragraph includes the authors’ affiliations. In the event there are several authors with varying affiliations, use split up sentences and paragraphs for every author, specifying all initials with the last name. The authors with exactly the same affiliation ought to be grouped; you need to list the affiliations based on the order of the authors in the byline.
  • The last paragraph of the initial footnote should specify the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, assigned by the IEEE.
Example: Manuscript received April 27, 2018; revised September 18, 2018; accepted July 25, 2018. Date of publication August 15, 2013; date of current version September 9, 2018. This work was supported by way of a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS UEFISCDI, under Project PN-II-ID-BXE-4016-3-0566. (Corresponding author: John Smith. )
The authors are with the National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Laboratory, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele, Romania (e-mail: florin. [email protected] ro; [email protected] ro; [email protected] ro).
Color versions of 1 or more of the figures are available on line at http:// ieeexplore. ieee. org. (NOTE: Only Used in combination with Printed Publications).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JDT.2013.2278036

If you want to specify any financial support for the task, it should be listed in the initial paragraph rather than the Acknowledgement section.

Example: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 90210 and Grant ECS-12345.

Body of the Paper

  • Abstract
    The IEEE format requires authors to include an Abstract atlanta divorce attorneys paper. An abstract should follow the Title Page of the document and appearance in the written text in boldface type. It has to be concise and should maybe not include any numbered references or mathematical equations.
  • Index Terms
    Authors should also provide Index Terms in their IEEE papers. Index Terms also needs to appear in boldface type, in alphabetic order, and located within the Abstract as its final paragraphs. You need to only define acronyms in this section if they have been completely defined in the paper itself.
    The authors can request a summary of keywords by sending a blank email to key words[at]ieee. org.
  • Text Equations
    When placing equations within the key body of the paper, one should number them in inconsequential order from the beginning of the work to its end. In some transactions, it is permitted to use the author’s own numbering system, for example , numbering by section, e. g., (1. 1), (1. 2. 1), (A1).
  • Acknowledgment
    The Acknowledgement section should always follow the final area of the text, after any Appendix(es) and preceding the References section. It ought to be written in the third person.

If you wish to cite names in the Acknowledgement section, do not use full names and honorables like Mr., Mrs., Miss, and Ms. Instead, only list first initials followed closely by a family name. You can still use titles like Prof. and Doctor, but only in the singular form, placing it separately alongside each name.

Usually do not include information regarding any financial support in the Acknowledgement section, stick it in the initial paragraph of the first footnote instead.

  • References
    In IEEE papers, all references should be numbered and there must be a separate entry for each number. It is not permitted to use the same reference amount of a group of IEEE citations.
  • Text Citation of Figures and Tables
    IEEE citation format for figures and tables requires following numerical order. Citations of figures located within the paper must always be labeled by the abbreviation “Fig. ” followed closely by the relevant figure number. Authors of papers should use this abbreviation even if it has to be put at the beginning of a sentence.
  • Biographies
    IEEE Transactions require including author biographies. Generally, biographies need to be divided into three paragraphs:
  1. First paragraph — should begin with the full name of mcdougal and the real history of their IEEE membership. It may also contain a date and/or host to birth (if the author provides it). Next, it is vital to specify the author’s educational back ground. Indicate the major part of study in lowercase letters, always put the word “degree” after a specific degree title, and specify the years when the degrees were obtained. For specifying degrees, you could use the following abbreviations: Dipl. Ing., Diplom-Physiker, Dr . ing., dr . Phil., Dr . Eng., B. S., S. B., B. A., A. B., B. Sc. (Hons. ), B. S. E., B. E. E., M. Eng., M. S. (tech. ), M. S. E. E., M. S. E., Civilingenir, Lic. es Sci., Lic. es Lett.
  2. 2nd paragraph -— it should contain information about the author’s work and military experience (if any); all job titles should be capitalized. When mentioning their current job, one must specify its location, but this is simply not mandatory for past experiences. Follow the list of experience by the author’s affiliations with non-IEEE journals, and current and previous fields of interest.
Note: you ought not repeat the name of the author in this paragraph; use “he” or “she” instead.
  1. Third paragraph — should begin with the title and surname of mcdougal (e. g., Dr . Mitchell, Mr. Black, Prof. Smith, etc . ). Then it will list details about the author’s memberships in professional societies (except IEEE), as well as their status as a Professional Engineer (if so). The paragraph should end with a listing of the author’s awards, publications, and benefit IEEE committees. If the author’s biography is unavailable, you need to use a squib because of it.
Example: Frank J. Author (s’xx—m’xx), photograph and biography unavailable at the Time of publication.

Other Text

  • Footnotes
    A footnote is any additional information, explanation, or comment linked to the main text that is located at the bottom of the page. All footnotes within the IEEE format paper should really be numbered and followed in consecutive order within the body of the paper. The numbers, both within the text and in the specific footnotes, should really be marked with superscripts. In the body of the paper, the superscript footnote numbers should be placed after the punctuation marks, such as for example parentheses, commas, and periods. However , if the sentence is a compound one, the numbers should really be placed prior to the punctuation marks, such as semicolons, dashes, colons, and quotation marks. The specific footnotes should really be placed in the bottom of the page where the cited information is situated.
  • List in Text
    All lists within the IEEE style papers should be formatted according to the following order of labeling: 1), 2), 3) followed by a), b), c), and then i), ii), iii).
Example: In line with the IEEE Computer Society, the key areas of computer science are: 1) algorithms and data structures; 2) theory of computation; 3) computer elements and architecture; and 4) programming methodology and languages.

How to Cite References

As was already mentioned, every reference has a corresponding IEEE citation within the key body of the essay or research paper. Whenever a writer adds a citation, they should insert a number within square brackets. Later, each citation ought to be assigned a complete reference on the References page. Relevant citations within the written text and on the references page should correspond to one another by numbers to make it possible to get the complete reference. The references page ought to be on its own split up page of the paper.

Each full IEEE reference must include all the necessary bibliographic information to greatly help the reader find additional information about its topic. The elements of an IEEE format reference are:

  • A corresponding number to the in-text citation
  • Author’s surname and initials
  • The full title of the work
  • Place of publication
  • Date of publication
  • Some smaller details like page number, issue, or volume (if available)

Now, as you know the essential rules of citations, let us look at some IEEE format citation examples to assist you understand how to make a reference page:

Digital Documents

[corresponding number] Author. (year, month and day of publication). Book title. (edition). [Type of medium]. Vol. (issue). Available: http:// website link [date accessed].

Example: [6] S. Calmer. (1999, June 1). Engineering and Art. (2nd edition). [On-line]. 27(3). Available: http:// website URL [May 21, 2003].

IEEE Website Citation
[corresponding number] Web site. “Title. ” Available: complete URL, date updated, [Accessed: date].

Example: [7] Emarketer. com. "Social Networking Reaches Nearly One in Four Around the World. " Available: http:// website URL, Jan. 25, 2014. [Accessed: June.23, 2014].

[corresponding number] Author’s Initial. Author’s Surname, "Title", Publication Title, Year Published. [Online]. Available: http:// website URL. [Accessed: date].

Example: [8] R. Robertson. "Leadership at the Bottom of the Earth… Where No body Hears You Scream", Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture, 2010. [Podcast]. Available: http:// website URL. [Accessed: Aug. 5, 2010].

Print References

Book: Single Author
[corresponding number] Author. Book title. Location: Publishing company, year, pp.

Example: [1] W. -K. Chen. Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-135.

Book: Two or More Authors
[corresponding number] Author, Author, and Author. Book title. Location: Publishing company, year, pp.

Example: [2] U. J. Gelinas, Jr., S. G. Sutton, and J. Fedorowicz. Business Processes and Information Technology. Cincinnati: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2004, pp. 98-100.

Book: No Author
[corresponding number] Book title. Location: Publishing company, year, pp.

Example: [3] The Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 13-23.

Article in a Journal
[corresponding number] Author. “Article title”. Journal title, vol., pp, date.

Example: [4] G. Pevere. “Infrared Nation. ” The International Journal of Infrared Design, vol. 33, pp. 56-99, Jan. 1979.

Newspaper Article
[corresponding number] Author. “Article title”. Newspaper title, pp, date.

Example: [5] N. Perpitch, "Green groups battle to overturn gas plan, " The Australian, p. 2, Sept. 7, 2010.

Note: In the event that you can’t find certain information regarding the source, exclude it.

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