MLA Format Citation Guide

MLA (Modern Language Association) Format Citation Guide is a standardized method for documenting sources in academic writing. In this format, citations provide brief information about the source, allowing readers to locate the complete reference in the Works Cited page. In-text citations typically include the author’s last name and page number. The Works Cited page lists full details alphabetically by the author’s last name. For books, include the author’s name, title, publisher, and publication year. For articles, include the author’s name, article title, source title, publication date, and page range. Electronic sources require additional details like the URL or DOI. It’s crucial to follow the guidelines meticulously to ensure accuracy and consistency. The MLA Format Citation Guide helps writers maintain integrity in academic work, giving proper credit to original sources and allowing readers to verify information independently. Adhering to MLA guidelines enhances the overall quality and professionalism of scholarly writing, demonstrating a commitment to academic integrity and proper citation practices.

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MLA Reference: In-Text Quotations

In MLA (Modern Language Association) style, in-text quotations are a key aspect of citing sources within the body of a scholarly work. When incorporating a direct quote from a source, the author’s last name and the page number are placed in parentheses at the end of the sentence. For example: (Smith 45). If the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence, only the page number is needed in parentheses at the end: “According to Smith, this phenomenon is evident in recent studies (45).”

For works with no identifiable page numbers, like websites, the author’s last name is sufficient: (Johnson). If the source has no known author, use a shortened version of the title instead: (“Impact of Climate Change”).

It’s crucial to punctuate and format these citations accurately to avoid plagiarism and give proper credit to the original author. In-text citations also serve as a roadmap for readers, guiding them to the complete source information in the Works Cited page at the end of the document.

Maintaining consistency in formatting and following the guidelines ensures the clarity and reliability of the scholarly work. Additionally, understanding how to integrate in-text quotations effectively enhances the overall quality and professionalism of academic writing, aligning with the rigorous standards set by the MLA format.

How to cite different types of sources

Citing sources in academic writing is a critical aspect to give credit to the original authors and provide readers with the information necessary to locate the sources themselves. Below are guidelines for citing different types of sources in MLA format:


  • Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.

Example: Smith, John. The Art of Writing. ABC Publications, 2020.

Articles in Print Journals:

  • Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. number, no. number, Publication Year, pages.

Example: Johnson, Mary. “The Impact of Technology on Education.” Journal of Education, vol. 25, no. 3, 2018, pp. 45-60.

Articles from Online Journals:

  • Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. number, no. number, Publication Year, pages. Name of Database, URL or DOI.

Example: Brown, Emily. “Digital Literacy in the Modern Classroom.” Educational Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, 2019, pp. 112-125. JSTOR, www.example


  • Author’s Last name, First name (if available). “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website, Publisher or sponsor, Publication or last update date, URL.

Example: Miller, David. “Climate Change and Global Impact.” Environmental Studies Hub, 2021 www.example

Social Media:

  • Author’s Username. “Text of the Post.” Social Media Platform, Day Month Year, Time, URL.

Example: @ScienceExplorer. “Exciting discoveries in the world of physics! #ScienceRocks.” Twitter, 15 Nov. 2022, 8:30 AM,

Remember to consult the latest MLA Handbook or the official MLA website for any updates or specific cases not covered here. Consistency is key in formatting citations, and accurately recording essential information ensures proper citation of diverse sources.