MLA recommends using a 12-point Times New Roman font and setting text to one-inch margins all around. Paragraphs must begin with a tab or indent four spaces.

Core components

1. Name of author (or editor, publisher, etc.) 2. Title of source (in quotation marks) 3. Information about the edition (if any) 4. Name of publication and place of publication (if any) 5. Date of publication (if any)

John Doe, “The Benefits of Exercise”. The Journal of Health and Fitness, published by Jane Smith, issue 2, number 4, ABC Publishing House, January 1, 2020, New York.

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First, the title of the source must be written in italics. This applies to books, magazine articles and more. Second, the author’s name must be listed followed by a comma. Third, if there are editors or publishers associated with the source, they should also be listed after the author’s name. Fourth, the date of publication must be listed followed by a comma. Fifth, if there is a page number or edition number associated with the source, it must also be mentioned after the date of publication. Finally, the place of publication must be listed at the end of the citation.

: Nina Ardianti

  • Always put the family name first, then separate it with a comma and list the first name and any initials (e.g., Black, Jacob K.)
  • If the author is unknown, you can use the name of the organization responsible or start with the title of the source (for example, Modern Language Association. “Works cited: Quick Guide” … or “works cited: Quick Guide”…)
  • When there are 2 authors, enter the first author’s name in reverse form, and follow it with the other authors’ names in the regular form (for example, Black, Jacob K., and Chris Thorn)
  • If there are 3 or more authors, enter the first author’s name in reverse and follow “et al” (eg, black, Jacob K., et al)
  • You are permitted to use an online username or pseudonym instead of a real name (e.g. PewResearch or Digiday)
  • You may also enter the names of translators or editors here, but their names must be followed by the relevant title – “editor” or “translator” (for example, Black, Jacob K., Editor or Thorn, Chris, Translator)

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is “The Impact of Social Media on Society”.

  • Enclose the title in quotation marks when the source is part of a short work (for example, a short article)
  • Major works such as books, television shows, and websites should be italicized
  • If the title of the source is unknown, replace it in your citation with a short, unquoted, unquoted description (e.g., home page of a website, review of some books, etc.)

“Building a Container for the Good and Welfare Together”.

  • Crooked
  • Can include multiple container titles if necessary

Contributors are people who contribute to open source projects. They can do a wide variety of things, such as writing code, creating documentation, testing software, and providing input to project development. Contributors can also help by answering questions in the forums or communicating with other members of the open source community.

  • List only the most relevant contributors to your work
  • Before each contributor’s name, specify their role (for example, produced by Jacob Black)

The when version is the version of the Indonesian language used in the West Kalimantan region. This is a different dialect of Indonesian spoken in most parts of Indonesia. This version has some unique words and phrases that no other Indonesian language has.

  • Refers to a specific edition, version, or revision of the source
  • Parts of this quote must all be in lowercase

(3)); // 3 console.log(sumNumber(2, 3, 4, 5)); // 14 console.log(sumNumber(1, 1, 1, 3)); // 6 console.log(sumNumber(5, 5, 5, 8)); // 23

  • This element refers to sources that appear sequentially, for example, TV seasons or episodes, issues, and volumes

Publisher is the organization or company responsible for publishing books, magazines and more. Publisher covers all aspects of publishing, including writing, editing, printing, distribution, and promotion. Publishers can also assist authors by providing suggestions on how to improve their work. Publishers usually have a team of editors whose job is to check manuscripts and provide input to authors before publishing the work.

  • When there are multiple publishers, they all need to be listed in citations and separated by a slash (/)
Example: University of Oxford Press/Cambridge University Press

Issue date varies depending on the type of document issued. Some documents, such as financial statements, may have a fixed issue date each year. Other documents, such as research reports or books, may have a different publication date each time they are published.

  • The information you provide here depends on the type of source
  • If there is more than one publication date (eg this resource has been republished a lot) you should only cite the publication date that you have used
  • In certain cases, it’s appropriate to quote a date range

Location is a specific place or geographic location. Location can refer to a country, city, village, house, building, room, or even a point on the earth’s surface. Location can also refer to the relative positions of objects with respect to one another.

1. Natural resources: This element can stand to control, utilize, and protect natural resources such as water, soil, and flora and fauna. 2. Human resources: This element can stand to improve human skills and knowledge through education, training, and career development. 3. Financial resources: This element can stand for managing financial resources in an efficient and effective way, including long-term financial planning and risk management. 4. Technology resources: This element can stand to ensure that the organization has access to the latest technology required to achieve its goals.

  • Print Source – Page Number (S)
  • Online Resources – URLs
  • DVD number – Disc
  • Object – where it is held
  • Performance – City and/or Place

MLA Reference: In-Text Quotations

In-text citations also help avoid copyright infringement. By including in-text citations, you are telling readers that the information you are using comes from another source and is not your original idea.

1. Quotations must be surrounded by single quotation marks (“). 2. If the quotation runs for more than one line, each succeeding line must be preceded by an indentation mark one tab apart. 3. After the quotation, you must include the appropriate source credit at the end of the sentence , including the author’s name and page number (if applicable).

  • It must match the relevant references from the page the work cited.
  • Each citation must contain the last name of the author and the page (or page range) where the specific citation or information is found in the original.
  • The author’s name can be part of the sentence or included in parentheses immediately after the quote.
  • Page numbers or figures must be included in parentheses after the citation, either alone or following the author’s last name.
Example of a quote where the author’s name is part of the sentence: To describe attitudes toward women in the American Society of the’S, Fitzgerald has his character Aster Flower Say “and I hope she is stupid – that is the best thing a girl can do in this world, beautiful fool” (21).
Examples of quotations that do not mention the author’s name in the sentence: In the novel, we see a phrase that describes the attitude towards women in the American Society of the 20s “and I hope she will be a fool – that’s the best thing a girl can do in this world, a beautiful fool” ( Fitzgerald 21).

1. Direct quote: “When we talk about progress, we must remember that much more needs to be done to ensure that everyone can benefit from it.” (Smith) 2. Indirect quote: Smith suggests that to ensure that everyone can enjoy the benefits of progress, more needs to be done.

More than one author

Examples: John Smith (12), Jane Doe (34), and Bob Jones (56)

MLA in Text Citation Example: “It’s all gone, Jack Sawyer, like the moon. It’s all coming back, like the moon” (King, Steven, and Straub 78).

afterwards. Example: Smith, J., Johnson, A., Williams, K., et al.

MLA in Text Citation Example: “He thought about it, why did ordinary children come to the academy. Mundanes had to choose to give up their parents, their families, their former lives. Unless, of course, they had no parents and no family” (Clare et al. 39).

Not writer

“‘How to Make Delicious Brownies'”.

A book is a medium that contains writing, pictures and other information printed on paper or other materials. Books are usually published by publishers and sold in bookstores. Books can also be in the form of magazines, comics, novels, guides, encyclopedias, and others. Books are a form of information media that is very popular throughout the world. Books allow people to store and access information easily. In addition, books also provide new insights for readers on certain topics.

Example: In novels oxygen Thief Diary, The feeling of deep satisfaction after an obvious or immoral act is described by the quote: “It’s like when you hear serial killers say they feel no remorse, no remorse for everyone they kill. I like that. Love it.” (5)

I’m reading a book.

Example: in the novels ( Oxygen thief diary 5 ).

_id INNER JOIN Article_Kategory ak ON a.Article_Kategory_id = ak.Article_Kategory_id WHERE a.Article_status = ‘1’ AND a.Article_archiv = ‘0’ AND ak.aktiv = ‘1’ AND ak.public = ‘1’ $where ORDER BY a .datum DESC, a.uhrzeit DESC”; $result = $this->app->DB->SelectArr($sql); return $result; } function GetArticleKategorien() { $sql = “SELECT * FROM article_categorie WHERE public= ‘1’ AND activ=’1′ ORDER BY sort”; $result = $this->app->DB->SelectArr($sql); return $result; } function GetArtikelKategorie($id) { if ($id = = 0) { return array(‘name’ => ‘Alle Categories’); } else { $sql = “SELECT name FROM article_categorie WHERE article_categorie_id=’$id’ LIMIT 1″; return current($this->app-> DB->SelectArr($sql)); } } function GetArticleCommentare($articleId) { if (!is_numeric($articleId)) { return false; ); Mail Address) (keine Spam Kommentare) (keine Unerwünschte Wörter enthaltene Kommentare) (maximum 5 Links pro Komentar erlaubt, kein Trackback oder Pingback erlaubt, kein HTML erlaubt, kein JavaScript erlaubt, kein PHP Code erlaubt, kein Flash erlaubt, kein Iframe erlaubt, kein Video oder Audio erlaubt usw.) ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜€ ๐Ÿ˜› ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜€ ๐Ÿ˜› ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜€ ๐Ÿ˜› ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜€ ๐Ÿ˜› ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜€ ๐Ÿ˜› ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜€ ๐Ÿ˜› ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜€ ๐Ÿ˜› ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜‰ ๐Ÿ™‚ ๐Ÿ˜Ž 8-| 8-( 8-| 8-( 8-| 8-( 8-| 8-( 8-| 8-( 8-| 8-( B-) B-| B-( B-| B-( B- | B-( B-| B-( B-| B-( B-| B-( >:-( >:-O >:-| >:-O >:-| >:-O >:-| >:-O >:-| >:( >:O >:| >:O >:| >:O >:| >:O >:| ๐Ÿ™ O: |: O: |: O: |: O : |: -_- -.- -.- -.- -.- -.- -.- -.- -.- _._ ._o_. ._o_. ._o_. ._o_. ._o_. ._o_. ._o_. ._o_. .___. .___Q___. .___Q___. .___Q___. .___Q___. .___Q___. .___Q___. .___Q___.”; // LOL! xDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD xD xD xD xD xD xD xD

Example: According to the “MLA Citation Guide” “…” (4)
(“MLA Citation Guide” 4)

Author with several works cited

Example: (Smith, 2020, page 23). (Smith, 2020, page 23)

Example: (Fitzgerald, I’m willing to die for you 35)

Author with the same surname

For example, “According to Smith (2020), …”. If you are referring to multiple works written by authors with the same surname, use the initial before the last name for each citation. For example, “Smith (2020a) states that …,” and “Smith (2020b) notes that …”.

Example: (B. MacDonald 17) and (J. Macdonald 56)

No page numbers

You can also use words like “at the beginning” or “at the end” to explain where the quote is. If you’re still unsure, use punctuation such as a comma or colon to indicate that this is a quote.

Example: (MacDonald, Ch. 4).

For example, “The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D. Salinger.

Cite quotes or brackets

qtd. in “The Power of Positive Thinking” by Norman Vincent Peale.

Example: (qtd. at fitzgerald 65)

Citing audio-visual sources

For example, if you were referring to a scene in a movie that starts at 01:45:30, you would write 01:45:30.

Example: (Mitchell 01:22:12)

How to cite different types of sources

1. Print Source: To cite a print source, you must include the author’s name, book title, publisher, and year of publication. Example: Smith, John. The Art of Writing. Penguin Books, 2019. 2. Online Sources: To cite online sources, you must include the author’s name (if any), article or web page title, website name, date accessed and URL. Example: Smith, John. “The Art of Writing”. Penguin Books Online,, Accessed May 15, 2020. 3. Unauthorized Source: If the source cited has no known author, then you must include the title of the article or web page followed by the name of the website and the accessed date and URL. Example: “The Art of Writing”. Penguin Books Online,, Accessed 15 May 2020

How to cite a book in MLA format

1. Dress politely and neatly. 2. Be friendly and polite to everyone. 3. Do not use harsh language or insult others. 4. Do not smoke in public places or in the work environment. 5. Do not bring food or drink into the workspace without the permission of the competent authorities. 6. Do not bring personal items into the workspace without the permission of the competent authorities. 7. Use the equipment with care and keep it clean and tidy after use. 8. Make sure to always be on time when coming to work, meetings, or other events related to your work. 9. Always comply with the rules set by the authorities in your workplace, including entry and exit hours, lunch breaks, and others.

  • Author name – When there are 2 authors, only the first person’s name needs to be reversed. The next one must be introduced by the word “and” and be in standard form. When there are more than 3 authors, you only need to show the first (last and then first name) and put “et al” after that.
  • Title – All words (except for small words) must begin with a capitalized letter, and the entire title must be italicized.
  • Container title, contributor, version, and number are optional elements. This information should be provided where valuable and relevant to the reader.

“Quote.” Author’s name, book’s name, x edition, publisher’s name, year of publication, pages.

Kumar, Sanjay. Operating System Concepts and Applications. Third Edition, by Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, Greg Gagne, McGraw-Hill Education Publishers, 2017.

Example: Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Big Gatsbys. Scribner, 2004.

How to cite edited and translated books in MLA format

1. If you name an editor or translator in the text, add “(ed.)” or “(trans.)” after their name: Example: “In The Art of War, Sun Tzu (ed.) wrote … ” 2. If you did not name the editor or translator in the text, add this information at the end of your quote: Example: “The Art of War teaches a lot about military strategy.” (Sun Tzu, ed.)

  • Mention the translator or editor in the author’s name field and define their role (eg “editor” or “translator”). Choose this method if your work focuses on translation or editing.
  • Add the name of the translator or editor in the Contributors of the Citation section.

1. Outline Format: This is the most commonly used format for writing essays. It has a clear structure and is easy to understand. This format consists of an introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction contains background information about your topic, while the body contains your arguments supported by facts and examples. The conclusion contains the main summary of what you have written in the previous section. 2. Persuasive Format: This format is more suitable for persuasive or argumentative essays. It has a similar structure to the outline format, but with a few important differences. The introduction contains background information about your topic and your main argument. The body contains your arguments supported by facts and examples, as well as arguments against which you must answer with good reasons. The conclusion contains the main summary of what you have written in the previous section and confirms that your argument is really valid.

Last, First Name, translator/editor. “Title”. In Container Title, edited by Contributor, version number, Publisher, year of publication.

Example: Clarke, Alan R, Translator. The alchemist. By Paulo Coelho, Harpercollins, 1993.

Finally, First Name. “Title”. Container Title, edited/translated by Contributor, version, number, publisher, year of publication.

Example: Coelho, Paul. The alchemist. Translated by A. Clarke, Harpercollins, 1993.

How to cite an e-book in MLA format

Writer. (Year published). Ebook title. Retrieved from Example URL: Smith, J. (2020). The Art of Writing. Retrieved from

Kurniawan, Eka. Becoming a Writer: The Complete Beginner’s Guide. Kompas Gramedia, edited by Dina Mardiana, edition 1, e-book ISBN 9786020455090, Kompas Gramedia, 2020.

Example: Troy, Ben N., et al. Guide to quotes. undefined

How to cite articles in MLA format

(Author, Year) “Article Title,” Publication Name, date.

John Doe, “Understanding the Basic Concepts of Programming”. Information Technology, ed. Jane Smith, version 2.3, May 15, 2020, New York City, Information Technology Database, doi: 10.123/456

1. Don’t forget to maintain your body’s health and fitness by eating healthy food, exercising regularly, and getting enough sleep. 2. Don’t forget to make realistic long-term plans and goals to achieve. 3. Don’t forget to manage your time well so you can complete the tasks set in front of you. 4. Don’t forget to think positively and see problems as new learning opportunities. 5. Don’t forget to stay focused on your ultimate goal and don’t let little things get in the way of your success.

  • Title – The title of the article is enclosed in quotation marks and does not need to be italicized.
  • Container title – Here, you need to provide the name of the source (e.g. newspaper, magazine, or journal) where the article was published. It should be italicized.
  • Version – This section refers to the type in each section of the publication.
  • Number – In this section, you need to specify the issue number (no.) or volume number (VO.).
  • Publication date – for newspapers and magazines, specify the day, month, and year (eg 9 December 2012). And for journals, only mention season and year (eg June 2018).
  • Location – This section is devoted to the page number of the article.
  • Database title, DOI or URL – included for online articles only.

Online publication is the process of publishing content on the internet. This includes uploading articles, images, videos and more to websites or social media platforms. Online publications can help you increase the visibility and reach of your audience. It can also help you increase sales of your products and services.

Online Example: Bradshaw, Peter. “Oscar Predictions 2020: Who will win?”. Guard , 7 Feb 2020,

Debit 1. Cash – IDR 100,000 2. Purchases – IDR 50,000 Credit 1. Accounts Payable – IDR 100,000 2. Inventory – IDR 50,000

Journal example: Greening, Leah. “Science fiction works for the development of the aerospace sector.” Popularization of space undefined

Magazines and newspapers are two different types of media. Magazines usually cover topics like entertainment, fashion, lifestyle, sports, politics and more. They usually have longer and more in-depth articles than newspapers. Newspapers usually cover shorter daily stories and generally don’t have very in-depth articles. They also often include local ads and information about events in your area.

Examples of magazines/newspapers: Smith, John. “Obama is inaugurated as president.” Time , 21 January 2009: 21-23. Print.

How to cite non-printing materials

Most Common Non-Print Sources: 1. Website: A citation from a website should include the author’s name (if available), page title, site name, editor, date of publication (if available), and URL. Example: “The Benefits of Exercise.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Jan. 22. 2019, Accessed May 8, 2020. 2. Online Video: The online video excerpt must include the video creator’s name, video title, social media platform or website where the video was posted, date of posting (if available), and URL. Example: Smith, John. “The Benefits of Exercise.” YouTube, YouTube LLC., February 15, 2018, Accessed May 8, 2020. 3. Podcasts: Podcast excerpts must include the name of the radio host or broadcaster (if available), title of the podcast or radio episode, name of the radio station or social media platform where the podcast was posted (if available), date of posting (if available), date of posting ( if available), and the URL . Example: Smith, John et al., “The Benefits of Exercise,” The Health Show Podcast Network, April 7, 2018, www.thehealthshowpodcastnetwork/episode7/. Accessed 8 May 2020

Images are in MLA format

Smith, John. “Cat Pictures”. PetFinder, Contributors, Reproduction, 2020,

Example: Gilpin, Laura. “Storied house, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico.” Library of Congress , Reproduction no. Lc-usz62-102170, 1939,

Movies in MLA format

. Director’s name, Christopher Nolan. “The Dark Knights”. Contributors: Christian Bale, Heath Ledger, Aaron Eckhart; Distributor: Warner Bros., 2008. Movies.

. “Movie title”. Directed by Name Director, contributor, Distributor, year of release. Medium.

Example: “The Matrix.” dir. Lana Wachowski and Lilly Wachowski, Warner Bros., 1999,

Example: Hitchcock, Alfred, Director. “Psycho”. Performances by Anthony Perkins and Janet Leigh, Paramount Pictures. , 1960, DVDs

TV series in MLA format

Example: “The One with the Prom Video”. Friends., created by David Crane and Marta Kauffman, season 2, episode 14. NBC, 1995.

Example: “A knight of the seven kingdoms.” Game of Thrones. , written by Bryan Cogman, directed by David Nutter, Season 8, Episode 2, HBO, 2019

Music in MLA format

. Example: Taylor Swift. “Love Stories”. Fearless, Taylor Swift, Album Version, Big Machine Records, 2008.

Example: Lady Gaga and Bradley Cooper. “Shallow.” A star has been born , Interscope, 2018.

How to cite a web page in MLA format

Example: Smith, John or World Health Organization. “Mental health”. Mental Health: A Guide for Mental Health Practitioners, 15 May 2020,

Example: Woodford, Kate. “Outlook and forecasting (prediction language)”. A blog of the Cambridge Dictionary , 5 Feb 2020,

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